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They who were enriched by her, shall lament her ruin. 481 shall weep and selves by her expensive magnificence, shall sect.

over her; wail and lament over her, out of a regard to XXI. for no man buyeth her merchandise any ny their own interest, if not to her's ; because no

Rev. more :

one any longer shall buy their wares, with xviii.

which they had loaded so many gallant vessels 11 12 The merchan- that carried on a traffic with her : They 12 dise of gold, and sil- shall lament, that so noble a vent for all the ver, and precious

1. delicacies of a pompous and luxurious life, is and fine linen, and lost ; and that they can no longer thus dispose purple, and silk, and of the ladings of gold, and silver, and every precscarlet, and all thyine in,

ne ious stone, and pearls, and of the fine linen of
wood, and all man,
ner vessels of ivory, Egypt, and the purple of Sidon, and the silk of
and all manner ves. the eastern countries, and the scarlet, and every
sels of most precious odoriferous wood, that the plantations of Arabia,
wood, and of brass,
and iron. and mar or the coasts of India, could boast ; and every

curiously wrought vessel of ivory, and every
vessel of most precious wood, in value ex-
ceeding even thạt, and all the utensils of
brass, and of iron, and of marble, with which

the houses of the rich, and of the great, have 13 And cinnamon, been furnished. No longer shall they there 13 and odours, and oint.

in find a market for rich and fragrant commodi. cense, and wine, and ties; for cinnamon, and perfume, and myrrh, oil, and fine four, and incense, nor for the more necessary and and wheat, and beasts, and sheep,

un important supplies of wine, and oil, and fine

pe and horses, and flour, and wheat, and kine, and sheep, and horses, chariots, and slaves, and chariots, and slaves :c and their yet more and souls of men.. infamous traffic for the lives, and the very

14 And the fruits that thy soul lusted souls of men, which they sacrificed to their avaafter are departed rice, and their treachery, shall cease. And 14 from thee, and all thou, O Babylon, shall join thy cry with theirs ; things which were fora dainty and goodly

To for all the fruits, which thy soul desired, and for are departed from which alone thy degenerate nature had any rethee, and thou shalt maining relish, are gone from thee, and all thy

sem no more delicious and splendid things are departed from at all.

15 The merchants thee; and the loss is final as well as entire ; for of these things which thou shalt never find them any more. I repeat 15 were made rich by it again, the merchants of all these [commodi. her, shall stand afar off for the fear of her ties,] who were enriched by her, shall stand afar torment, weeping off, in a mixture of terror and grief, for fear of and wailing, her torment, weeping, and mourning, but abso.




c Slaves.] The Greek word rwuesto can fail to take notice of it. Compare has plainly this signification. Compare Isa. xxiii. 1, 7, 14, sim. Some have Tobit x. 9.

interpreted many of these passages, as d Weeping and mourning.] There is in referring to the circumstances of Popish all this so evident a reference to the lamen- worship, and the trade of their priests : tation over Tyre, described by Ezekiel, as ver. 11, to relics, pardons, and indul. (chap. xxvii.) that I suppose few readers gencies : ver. 12, to their images, and

482 The apostles and prophets are exhorted to rejoice over her. sect. lutely incapable of giving her any relief; smit. xxi. ing on their breasts, And saying, Alas, alas, 16 And saying, Rev. for the great, elegant and magnificent city, that Alas, alas, that great

, city, that was clothxviii. was clothed with fine linen, and purple, and edi

purple, ana ed in fine linen, and 16 scarlet, and adorned with gold, and precious purple, and scar. 17 stones, and pearls ! For, who can sufficiently let, and decked with lament this sad instance of the uncertainty of gol hiccod instance of the uncertainty of gold, and precious

stones, and pearls ! all human things, when he sees, that, in one 17 For in one hour hour, all these great riches are laid waste, and so great riches is made desolate? And this sad scene was sented to me in a lively vision ; and every pi- ter, and all the com.

And every ship mas. lot, and every one of the ship's company, and the pany in ships, and mariners, and all that bestow their labour upon sailors, and as many

as trade by the sea, stood afar off from the flames of the stood afar off

sea, 18 burning city, And cried, when they saw the 18 And cried when smoke of her burning, ascend in such thick col. they saw the smoke

cs of her burning, say. umns to heaven, What (city, is] like to the great ;

Cul ing, What city is city, so long unequalled in its glory, and now like unto this great 19 in its ruin? And they seemed like men in the city!

greatest agony of distress, and cast dust upon their . 19 And they cast

mreatest agony of distress, and cast dust upon the dust on their heads heads, and cried, weeping, and mourning, saying, and cried, weeping Alus, alas, for the great city, by whose magnific and wailing, saying, cent expenses, arising from her profusion, and Alas, alas, that great

city, wherein were elegance, and grandeur, all that had ships in

cur, all that nad snips made rich all that the sea, were enriched, so that she alone was had ships in the sea, sufficient, as it were, to maintain the merchan. by reason of her costo dise of the world ; for she is made desolate in hi

Lote in liness ! for in one

" bour is she made one hour, to a degree that we should have im- desolate.

agined utterly impossible. 20 But while they were thus lamenting their 20 Rejoice over own loss and her's, I was affected in another her, thou heaven,

** and ye holy apostles, manner, and could not forbear crying out in an my own heart, Rejoice over her, thou just aveng- God hath avenged ing heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets,e you on her. who look down from your abodes of glory, on so wonderful and interesting a scene. Take your part in the sacred triumph; for on your account, God has pronounced sentence upon her ; he hath adjudged her to righteous destruction, for

the furniture of their churches and chap- thing valuable and desirable, and the utter els, and the variety of rich dresses for ruin of this magnificent city. their images and priests : ver. 13, to the Apostles.] Nothing can be more incense used at their altars : ver. 22, to lively than this apostrophe, in which the the musical instruments used in their wor. apostles, though honoured in Rome by so ship : and ver 23, to the vast numbers of many superstitious and idolatrous riles, are, lamps burning before their idolatrous al. nevertheless, called upon to rejoice in her tars ; and the like. But it seems rather destruction. to centre in one view, the loss of every

hech of old, with one which had his in corres.

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There shall be no joy or festivity in her any more. 483

her opposition to his kingdom, and for the sect. injuries done to you, who, with ardent and xxi. unwearied zeal, endeavoured to establish and

Rev. promote it.

xviii. 21 And a mighty And, as soon as I had uttered this in corres- 21 angel took up a stone pondence to the scene which had been repre. like a great mill. ! stone and cast it in. sented of old, with relation to the great seat of to the sea, saying, the Chaldean empire, (Jerem. li. 64,) a strong I hus with violence angel took a stone, like a great millstone ; and, Babylon be thrown with a

own with a vigorous and rapid motion, hurled it into down, and shall be the sea, saying, Thus shall Babylon the great found no more at all. city, unequal as the production of this event

may seem to any human power, be violently
hurled awayf by the almighty arm of an aveng-

ing God, and sink into the dephts of destruc

oice tion; so that it shall never be found any more. of harpers and musi. cians, and of pin. And the harmonious sound of harpers, and other 22 ers, and trumpeters, musicians, and those who sound the fute, and the shall be heard no trumpet, shall no more be heard in thee; and evemore at all in thee ; and no craftsmen, of ry artificer of every curious trade, employed for whatsoever craft he the accommodations and ornaments of life, shall be, shall be found any no more be found in thee, 0 Babylon, nor shall more in thee ; and the noise of the millstone the sound of a mill. me noise I the millstone

the noise of the millstone be heard in thee any stone shall be heard more, even to prepare bread for the meanest in. no more at all in habitant. And the light of a lamp shall no more 23 thee ; " and the lishe be seen in thee, to gild thy dark night with its of a candle shall cheerful rays ; and the voice of the bridegroom shine no more at all and the bride, rejoicing in their new relation, in thee; and the and celebrating the nuptial feast, shall be heard voice of the bride. groom and of the in thee no more ;8 because thy merchants were bride shall be heard grandees of the earth, and maintained so shameno more at all in ful a traffic by every dishonest art, and because chants were the "

e all the nations were deceived by thy sorceries, and great men of the poisoned by thy pernicious practices. And, 24 earth ; for by thy to complete her guilt, as Babylon of old had sorceries were all nations deceived

" grown great by the slaughter of Israel, so in her, 24 And in her was who has been here represented, was found the found the blood of blood of the prophets, and of the saints of God, prophets, and of even of all those who were slain upon the earth ; saints, and of all c. that were slain upon

n for this wicked city exceeded all the rest of the the earth.

world in cruelties, and might boast in the mul.


* Hurled away.) This the original (compare Dan. vii. 11,) will be swallow. words openpecto Banonostas import ; as if ed up in a lake of fire and brimstone, as falling by its own weight, its fall would Sodom and Gomorrah were. Burn. Theo. not have been rapid enough. From hence Vol. II. p. 123. Compare Rev. xix. 20. Dr. Thomas Burnet infers, in his Theory & Verse 22, 23) Compare Jer. xxv. of the earth, that Rome, being first fired, 0; xxxiii. 11 ; Ezek. xxvi. 13, o sim. VOL. 6.


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Reflections on the fall of Babylon. sect. titudes of the martyrs she had slain, beyond all xxl. that had ever gone before her, in such detestaTable persecutions ; and this hath filled up the xvii. measure of her iniquities, and plunged her into

24 this irrecoverable ruin.



verse From the particular detail which is here given us, of the on12, 13 rious commodities in which Babylon traded with its merchants,

we may surely take an incidental occasion to reflect upon the rich bounty of Divine providence to the children of men, in giring them such a variety of good things, which tend not only to their necessary support, but their ornament and delight. To whatever pernicious purposes vanity and luxury may abuse the silver and the gold, the gems and the pearls, the fine linen and silk, the purple and scarlet, the ivory and the marble, the cinnamon and the myrrh, as well as the more important blessings of wheat and oil, of kine, and sheep, and horses, all are the gifts of God ; and, if wisely and properly used, may justly excite our thankfulness to him ; and it is on ourselves, and not on him, that we are to charge it, if what should have been for our welfare becomes a trap, and our treasures be turned into idols. Nor is the wise disposition of Providence to be disregarded, in causing many of these things to be the peculiar products of different countries, denying to some what he has given to the rest, that so traffic and commerce may be encouraged, and, by it, society and intercourse extended among different nations, and provision made for that spread of Divine knowledge, which had, in many instances, been impossible, if human industry, quickened by necessity, and the prospect of gain, had not invented those arts of navigation, to which Great Britain, above all other nations, is so much indebted, and without which, indeed, our beautiful and fruitful island had been a desert, inaccessible to men.

But, though this oblique reflection may profitably be made, the great object to which we are directed by this chapter, is the 21 certain and final ruin of Babylon, which, how highly soever es.

alted, how superbly soever adorned, how luxuriously soever re8 galed, shall fall, shall fall as a millstone cast into the sea, Strong

is the Lord God who judgeth her ; and it is impossible she can 2 withstand the force of his omnipotent arm. Long has she, in a metaphorical sense, been the hold of every foul spirit, and the cage

of every unclean and hateful bird ; and God will make her so in 5 another, even in a literal sense, when he shall appear to remem.

ber and punish those iniquities, which have reached unto heaven ; 24 among which, various and detestable as they have have been,

shedding the blood of the prophets and the saints, must be reckoned

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The heavenly host triumphs over her.

485 as most enormous. Let no triumph of the antichristian powers, secr. for the present, shake our faith in these most certain and indu. xxi. bitable prophecies ; and let that charge never be forgotten,

Come forth from her, O my people, and be separate.Blessed A be God, that a separation has been begun, that it has been so long supported, and that so many attempts to bring back God's Israel into captivity have been defeated. May the boundaries of the reformation be extended; may the purity of the reformed churches be more and more advanced, and all remainders of superstition, persecution, and imposition, be taken away. And, to conclude all, let those who are now living deliciously, and glorifying themselves in the forgetfulness of God, abusing the various gifts of his bounty to his dishonour, and saying in their hearts, that they shall see no sorrow, remember, how suddenly their state may be 7 changed ; how quickly they may sink into the depths of misery, proportionable to the height of their abused prosperity ; and experience a torment and sorrow, which will be doubly bitter in 6 the remembrance of their former condition. Let such, there, fore, in whatever rank of life they are, according to the words of Daniel to the most illustrious king of Babylon, Daniel iv. 27,) Break off their sins by righteousness, and their iniquities by shewing mercy to the poor, if it may be a lengthening out of their tranquillity ; and give glory to God, before all their cheerful light be exchanged for darkness, and all the harmony of their music for 23 weeping and wailing, groaning and lamentation for ever. 9-15

The triumphs of the heavenly host in the fall of Babylon are de-

scribed, and further illustrated, by a view of un attack made by
Christ and his army, on the beast, which ended in an entire vic-
tory over him. Rev. XIX. throughout.

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Rev. XIX. 1.

REVELATION XIX. 1. AND after these AND after these things, this affecting repre- sect. 1 things I heard

11 sentation of the certain destruction of Bab. xxii.

1 sentation of the certain
a great voice of
much people in ylon, as the seat of the antichristian kingdom, I
heaven, saying, Al- heard the voice as of a great multitude in heaven,
leluia ; Salvation, who seemed to be triumphing on this occasion,
and glory, and hon-
our, and power upto saying, Hallelujah ; let the name of Jehovah.
the Lord our God: the most high God, be ever praised and exalt-

ed. Let this great salvation, and all the glory
and honour, which can arise from this, and all
his other wonderful works and the power so
amazingly displayed in them, be ascribed to the

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