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so to be. Vermont, as everybody knows, can raise tive and profitable, all the departments should be as good regetables, and has as good dairies as any well represented. State in the Union.
I noticed in the sheep department this morning a fine lot of French merinos, exhibited by A. L. Bing
THE PRODUCTION OF BARLEY. ham, of West Cornwall, Vt. There were about
It is a remarkable fact that we are still in uncerseventy of them, bucks, ewes and lambs, and as fine tainty whether barley grows wild in the Old World; stock as one would wish to see. Some of the bucks and if so, in what region this occurs.
Even the which had missed one shearing had wool from two authors of antiquity were at variance as to whence to five inches long, and a beautiful staple.
barley, as well as wheat, the grains chiefly used at At 94 o'clock, the horses entered for premium in that time, had been derived. "It has been cultivated the different classes were brought on to the field for in Syria and Egypt for more than three thousand inspection by the committees. A large concourse years, and it was not until after the Romans adopted of people were in attendance, and the scene was a the use of wheat bread that they fed this grain to gay one, truly inspiriting to the lovers of equine their stock, as is practiced by the Spaniards and display. Many fine animals were trotted on to the Italians at the present day. It is evidently a native ground, and their good points set off to the best of a warm climate, as it is known to be the most advantage. Just before the committees took their productive in a mild season ; still its flexibility is stations, the venerable Nathan Lounsbury, of Clar- so remarkable, that it will grow on the Hymalayas endon, aged one hundred and one years, rode over at an elevation of from 10,000 to 13,000 feet above the course in a handsome barouche, and was hear- the level of the sea, and mature in favorable seasons tily cheered by the spectators.
and situations on the Eastern Continent as far north An exciting incident occurred during the exhibition upon the track of all the horses entered. It
The introduction of barley into the North Ameriseems the owner of one of the horses which was can colonies may be traced back to the periods of attached to a gig, entrusted him to the care of an their settlements. It was sown by Gosnold, togethIrishman, who being disposed to exhibit his talents er with other English grains, on Martha's Vine
whip,” struck the nobler animal of the two a yard and the Elizabeth Islands, in 1602, and by the violent blow with his whip. The horse sprang for- colonists of the “ London Company,” in Virginia, ward, and Pat not being accustomed to trotting in 1611. By the year 1648, it was raised in abungigs, lost his balance and fell backward to the dance in that colony; but soon after its culture, was ground. The horse ran directly towards the stand, suffered to decline in consequence of the more proin front of which was a great crowd of men and fitable and increased production of tobacco. women, scattering them in every direction. Direct
Barley appears to have been cultivated in New ly in front of the stand the runaway came in con- Netherland as early as the year 1626, as samples of tact with Mr. Maynard's carriage, overturning it the harvest of that year, raised by the colonists of instantly. Mr. Maynard was thrown out and barely Manhattan Island, were sent to Holland, with other escaped being trampled under foot by the now fran- grains, as an evidence of their prosperity. tic animal. The horse was then caught, but another
According to the records of the “Governor and horse was “making tracks” on his own responsibility. Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New EngAttached to Mr. Maynard's carriage was the beauti- land," barley was introduced into that colony in 1629. ful Black Hawk, which has attracted so much admi- In 1633 good crops were raised in Lynn. ration, during the Fair, and which is owned and
In 1796 the chief agricultural product of the isle kept by Mr. M., in Lowell, Mass. On this occasion of Rhode Island was barley, considerable quantities he was driven by Mr. Crandall
, of Brattleboro', who of which were raised. clung to the reins manfully, and was dragged seve Barley has never been cultivated much in the ral rods upon his back, when he was obliged to United States, nor has it entered extensively into relinquish his hold. The horse then ran across the our foreign commerce, as we have been consumers field, knocking down and running over a man, and rather than producers of this grain. It has been injuring him very severely. He then came upon chiefly employed for malting and distillation, and the track again, when the carriage was caught by a also in considerable quantities as a substitute for post, and was almost entirely demolished. With sago or rice, after being hulled. the fragments hanging about him, he again ran past According to the census returns of 1840, the the stand, and soon came in contact with another amount of barley raised in the United States, horse and sulky, (which with the most culpable the year preceding, was 4,161,504 bushels ; of 1850, negligence had been left alone by the driver,) and 5,167,015 bushels ; showing an increase of 1,005,overturned it-of course starting its horse into a 511 bushels. The amount of the barley crop of run. The Maynard horse was shortly after caught the United States in 1853, may be estimated at by the harness in a fence, and secured, while the 6,390,000 bushels; which at 75 cents per bushel, other was caught by a man who had the boldness would be worth $4,875,000. to seize him by the bridle as he ran past him. Considering the great crowd upon the ground at the time, it is truly wonderful that many were not
BROOM CORN.—It is a singular omission in the severely injured.
United States census, that it does not give any staWe take the above account from the Boston tistics of the amount of broom corn raised in the Journal. The reporter uses a free pen in regard country. In our own State hundreds upon hunto some of the departments of the Exhibition. dreds of acres are appropriated to the cultivation However, if their deficiencies are plainly pointed of the desirable commodity. Broom corn never out, it may call attention to them, and cause them was stouter, nor a better crop than during the present to be corrected in future. To make a show attrac-lyear. It will soon be out.-Albany Argus.
NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE FAIR. him to give his whole attention to the manufacture.
He has manufactured several since then on rainy WEDNESDAY-FIRST DAY.
days, and during his leisure moments, and they find The Sixth Annual Fair of the New Hampshire a ready sale at from thirty to fifty dollars each. Agricultural Society commenced to-day, Wednes- The gentleman, we learn, is not satisfied with his day, Sept. 12, at Manchester. The fair is held upon present attainments in the excellence of the manuthe “old rye field” where it has been held on for- facture, but means to make them equal to the Cremer seasons. The same area of ground is en- monas. He is about to establish himself at Conclosed as heretofore. The enclosure presents a fine cord. This is the way with Yankees. appearance. Near the entrance is the business of- The procession arrived upon the ground at two fice, and the editor's room—a feature which all gen- and a half o'clock. The area of a large radius was tlemen connected with the Press know full well a sea of humanity, surging to and fro, each wave enhow to appreciate. The room is cool and airy. Am- deavoring to dash up to the stand. Occasionally a ple accommodations are found. A long table well cry from the ladies told how severely they were supplied with stationary, &c. Connected therewith moved about, without the least power of resistance. is a refreshment room, where wholesome and sub- The orator of the day, Hon. C. B. Haddock, late stantial food may be found whenever the reporter is U. S. Minister to Portugal, was then introduced to tired of driving ihe quill, or when he returns from the assembly by the President, Ex-Governor Bathe field, where the sun pours down its scorching ker. rays. None better understand the wants of the ed- The speaker commenced with a brief notice of agitorial fraternity than the indefatigable secretary of riculture under the Romans. The present state of the society, James 0. Adams, Esq., who is himself agriculture was next spoken of, that it was now a well known as an editor. Suffice it to say, that, be- science—a study. The old times had passed away. ing seconded in his affairs by Frederick Smyth, Esq., The next topic was the ennobling influence of agrithe efficient Treasurer, the facilities for reporting culture. The farmer is the happiest of men. As are most admirable, and are duly appreciated by all farmers we should be satisfied—even as New Hampthe representatives of the press present.
shire farmers we have reason to be satisfied, although Just within the entrance are two of Yale's large our soil is sterile and hard to cultivate. There are tents, one devoted to the display of fancy articles, other lands, beautiful lands, that are more inviting; the other to farming implements and the heavy ar- but we have compensation for our hardship. The ticles of manufacture. Other tents are erected— self-denial, the enterprise which compels the farmer one occupied by a representative from the establish- to exert himself—the cold winter which fastens us ment of a caterer well known to the Boston public, to our firesides, developes the best instincts of the J. B. Smith, where the public can find a cup of cof- heart. fee, not to be despised even by an Oriental. In the We have a great deal to do for agriculture; first, immediate vicinity are ample accommodations for we need an institution for the benefit of agriculture. feasting the hungry multitude expected tomorrow In this connection, the orator referred to the pro-the great day of the Exhibition.
fessions, and said that that which was at the founAround the sides of the enclosure are ample stalls dation of all others was neglected. We needed an for horses, of which a large number are already en- agricultural school-a national agricultural bureau. tered; also pens for cattle. The stalls and pens The inhabitants of Manchester were not more interare covered to protect the animals from the intol- ested in manufacture than the farmers of New erable heat. Water carts pass along occasionally, Hampshire in agriculture. He then referred to the and the animals are treated to a drink, for which true policy of New Hampshire—that it was manuwe doubt not they are very grateful. Water is facturing. There should be a mill upon every forced into hogsheads upon the ground by a hydrau- stream; agriculture would thrive thereby. lic ram, from a brook which gurgles along at some Horticulture was also a legitimate occupation for distance from the field. The arrangements through- the gentlemen and ladies of New Hampshire. In out are ample, and reflect much credit upon the this connection the orator pictured the loveliness, committee of arrangements.
the beauty, the healthfulness of the occupation; it
was Paradise regained. Horticulture was a teachTUESDAY—Second Day.
er to the farmer-teaching him that a great deal In the afternoon, at two o'clock, a procession was could be produced from a small quantity of land. formed and escorted the Governor of the State, the A liberal education is not a disqualification for a orator of the day, the invited guests and officers of farmer. A liberally educated man is a full grown the society to the grounds. While the procession man. It is not neccessary that he should be a colwas en route, we took occasion to look at a couple lege graduate, to be such. The book of nature was of violins to which our attention was especially ever before him. No pursuit was better than farcalled. They were manufactured by Mr. J. H. Arey, ming to develop the powers of the mind. a farmer of Boscawen, who has not only an exqui- In conclusion, he said that there was something site taste for music, but great mechanical genius, as beautiful in the thought that at last we might close some beautiful inlaid work-boxes in the exhibition, our earthly existence upon the spot which we had the product of his leisure hours, fully testify. About cultivated and adorned. The address was one of a year since Mr. Arey having read of the scientific great beauty, and had the rare merit of being brief. proportions of a Cremona violin, took it into his head to try his hand in making one; he did so, and
At this stage of the proceedings there was an unit was sent to Boston to a music-dealer, who at once
qualified political address, by Mr. Botts, of Virsold it, we believe, for some $30. Mr. Arey hav- ginia ! ing heard of the sale, visited Boston, where he re
FRIDAY_THIRD DAY. ceived the most flattering assurances of the worth The morning of Friday was beautifully clear and of the instrument, from good judges, who urged mild. A light fog lay in the valley of the Merri
mac, but as the sun ascended the heavens, it disap- As we were under the necessity of leaving the peared, and at eight o'clock everything in nature ground before the report of the committee was givwas as beautiful as could be wished for the conclu- en, we have no means of knowing who were the sucsion of the exhibition. At eight o'clock the trotting cessful competitors. horses occupied the track. Also a large sized bull,
CLOSE OF THE FAIR. with a rider upon his back, which went round the course in good time, but not very elegantly. Not
At twelve o'clock the reports of the judges were withstanding the crowd was so dense yesterday, given from the orator's stand. there was a respectable attendance, and a call for
After the premiums had been awarded, an auctickets up to the hour of 1 P. M.
tion was held in the tents for the sale of articles. During the morning, we fell in company with G. The fast horses also appeared upon the course to W. Nesmith, Esq., of Franklin, formerly President gratify the never-tired gaze of that portion of the of the Society, and obtained from him some infor-community who delight to see how quickly a horse
In this connection, it may be mation in regard to the manufacture of hosiery in can travel a mile. that place. The manufactory was erected about a remembered that many of the best men of the comyear since, and two hundred and fifty hands are now
munity begin to doubt the utility of State Fairs. constantly employed in the mill, besides individuals The "fast" men and “fast” horses are in some dein some five hundred families in the surrounding gree obtaining a prominency which makes everycountry. The machinery used is of American in- thing else subordinate. The tendencies are towards vention, and it manufactures an article very differ-horse-racing, and unless a change is made in this ent from those produced by foreign looms. Four respect
, it is apprehended that in a few years this different colored' threads are interwoven by a loom will be the all-absorbing feature of such exhibi
tions. now in operation, a thing not known in English manufacture. Seventy thousand dozen pairs were
A large number of the prominent men of the manufactured the past year. The company have a
State were present upon the occasion, besides some contract with Government to supply the
from abroad. --Journal, abridged. with
navy twelve thousand dozen pairs the coming year. One hundred and seventy-five thousand pounds of wool, per annum, are used, all American ; indeed, all the
WATER RAMS--CEMENT PIPES. material consumed is American, save some of the
The following communication, which we find in dye stuffs. Most of the wool in the immediate vi- the Country Gentleman, is one of those practical cinity is used in the establishment.
The looms do their work so easily that a lad of things, coming home to a majority of farmers, that fifteen will weave sixteen dozen pairs per day. The possesses a real value : two hundred and fifty operatives receive about five As I very frequently receive queries from all thousand dollars per month for their labors, and parts of the country, respecting cement pipe and the individuals in the surrounding country who do cement cisterns, and their durability, I would be the "seaming," receive about fifteen hundred more, much obliged, if you will permit me, through your making a total of seventy-five thousand dollars paid journal, to answer several communications in regard out to the people within a radius of fifteen or twen- to hydraulics. ty miles. The articles produced are of excellent 1. Can hydraulic rams be put up and made to texture, and find a ready market. It is a source of raise the water 80 or 100 feet, and be made durable ? pride to the inhabitants of the State to know that My answer, from experience, is—There is one runafter sleeping a Van Winkle sleep of years, New ning at this place, which has been in operation Hampshire is at last seeking with rapid strides her seven years, and I see no good reason why it should true destiny. An old and matronly lady, while ex- not continue for 50 more. I find the great failure amining the splendid exhibition of hosiery present- in these machines is caused by bad setting, as I have ed, objected to the manufacture as being prejudicial fitted over a large number which have given perfect to the morals of the rising generation of girls— satisfaction. "it would lead to idleness,” she said, “and the Lord 2. Can cisterns be made on sandy soil, without knows that they gad enough now.” The remark of stone or bricks, that will be lasting ?' I have been the good dame raised many smiles upon the cheeks engaged in the business for twenty years, and have of the young ladies within hearing.
put them in all kinds of soil, even quicksand, and PLOWING MATCH.
am yet ignorant of a failure. I consider stone or
bricks used a damage; the natural earth is far betAt nine o'clock the Plowing Match was held on ter to put the cement on, and with one third the ground at the north end of the city, nearly up to
expense. the place where the brave revolutionary hero Stark 3. Cement has got to be an article of commerce, "sleeps his last sleep."
and can be found in almost all large villages. I The ground was a sandy loam, well swarded, and purchase a good article of the manufacturer for one requiring a strong team to carry the plow steadily dollar per barrel by the quantity. to the depth of seven inches. Seven teams were 4. Does it need slaking, like other lime? No. entered-four single ox, one double team of two- 5. What proportions do you use, for pipe? Oneyear old steers, and two-horse teams. Each com- fourth of lime, as a general rule; but it is necessary petitor was allowed to “take his time”-a most ju- to vary from that, as some portions of sand are more dicious arrangement, as there was no hurrying, porous than others, even in the same bed. shouting, or use of the whip, but a steady drive 6. The color varies in different localities; the if each was upon his own field. The work in gen- Onondaga cement is a yellowish cast; the Roseneral was well done, especially that performed by the dale cement is of a light slate color. Budington steers, who acted like oxen, bracing their shoulders and the Newark Company at Kingston manufacture to the work without the appliance of whip or goad.da good article. Onondaga cement requires to be
differently prepared where you form an entire body, some fine specimens. A pair of native oxen, the such as pipes.
property of H. A. & S. A. Coburn, of Lowell, 5 7. Does it become useless after being ground one year? I have put down pipe of it after it had been years old, weight 3905 lbs. and girting 7 feet 8 ground and barreled seven years, and the pipe has inches, attracted all. They are working cattle, and been down and in use fourteen years.
regularly employed on the farm. Elijah M. Reed's 8. New pipe can be attached to old, and made Alderney, the best cow, probably, in the State, was tight. It can be drilled, and lateral branches lead there, with a calf by her side. Z. P. Proctor, of off for different purposes.
Dunstable, and H. C. Merriam, of Tewksbury, each 9. A good set of moulding rods with mould is worth twelve dollars.
had Durham Short Horn bulls, which were fine. 10. What is the expense of putting down one Messrs. Spencer, of Lowell, Sheldon, of Wilminginch cement pipe ? One barrel of cement will ton, G. P. Wright, of Dunstable, Gardner Parker, make eight rods of pipe. My price is 378 cents of Billerica, and Wm. Nichols, of Lowell, had cata rod and furnished, and you can calculate the tle, horses and swine, which were excellent, but rest. 11. Is it durable ? I believe when properly put
which we cannot more particularly speak of now. dov it is as lasting as time.
The display of vegetables was remarkably fine, Colosse, N. Y.
A. BUTTERFIELD. indeed, we have rarely seen better, and they em
braced every kind usually found in New England. MIDDLESEX NORTH AGRICULTURAL We noticed among other marvellous growths, 21 SOCIETY.
pumpkins, all produced from a single hill, any one We had the pleasure of attending the first exhi- of which would make a very large house for a fambition of this new society at Chelmsford, on Wednes- ily of a dozen persons from Lilliput ! day, Sept. 19. The rain of the day previous had
But the room containing the fruit and the handilaid the dust, and the air was cool and exhilarating. work of the ladies was the centre of attraction on Everybody seemed to breathe free again after the that day. We had no desire to select specimens of intense heat of nearly all the preceding portion of unusual merit where all were so good. Pears were September, so that everybody was elastic
, good- very fine, and in variety; so were the plums, Washnatured and active—and that is a great deal to be- ington, Coe's Golden Drop, Gages and others. gin with on a show day. The horses were nimble Some speeimens of Crawford's Early Peaches, preand showy—the cattle cool and contented—the pigs sented by Mr. David C. Perham, surpassed in size slept and grunted in their narrow domains, unless any we had ever before seen. The specimens of stirred up by some visitor eager to see their points apples were of the highest order, and in considera-turkeys "gobbled,” hens cackled, and rooster ble variety; indeed, it would puzzle some of the most defiantly crowed to his neighbor rooster State shows to make so fine a display of apples, and across the way. All was life and animation and if they were not all rightly named, it is only an ergood feeling in the centre of Old Chelmsford, on ror that much older societies are quite liable to fall
into. that day. Even the sun himself, as much of a bore as he has recently been charged with being,
There was some fine Poultry on the ground, but was held in good fellowship—for men and maidens,
the display was not large. and pigs and poultry, were basking in his beams,
The address was by the Hon. TAPPAN WENTand declared they were really congenial.
WORTH, of Lowell. His topics were, the policy and We first looked at the plowing match. Eleven action of the State in relation to agriculture, a brief teams
entered, and ten contested. The history of the origin of the County Society, and ground selected was a sandy loam, without stones,
the practice of agriculture in England. He thought and with only a very slight sward. It was well
the hardness of our soil led the earlier settlers into plowed, as it might have been with only ordinary
other pursuits, and that the same influences may teams and plowmen—but it was evident, notwith- be in operation now; the demand for agricultural standing, that there was skill in both, which would products calls for better cultivation; he spoke of the have done good work anywhere.
means of increasing crops, of the profits of farming, The trial of strength and skill of working oxen
and brought together statistics which will be exwas finely contested. The load drawn, including
ceedingly valuable hereafter. The address was emthe wagon, weighed 6000 pounds, and it was han- inently practical, and adapted to the occasion, and dled by several with great credit to the teamster we hope to see it handsomely printed. and team. After trial by the ox teams, a single
The dinner was well attended by some five hunhorse, the property of Mr. White, of Lowell, was dred persons, nearly one-half of whom, we should hitched to the end of the tongue of the wagon, judge, were ladies—truly a most admirable feature started it in the sand and drew it up a sharp pitch in these social gatherings. to the level ground. His weight, we were informed The President of the Society—the Hon. WILLIAM is 1675 pounds.
SPENCER-addressed the multitude in a neat and The show of cattle was not large, but included appropriate speech, and remarks were made by Dr.
BOOKS FOR FARMERS.
WANTS TO BE A FARMER
Bartlett, of Chelmsford, Mr. Wentworth, of Lowell, EXTRACTS AND REPLIES.
In your paper for April, page 197, in answer to Upon the whole, the first Exhibition of the new one of your correspondents, you gave a list of books. Society has been a successful one; but it will take I had Johnston's Chemistry and Geology, Browne's more than one year, to hitch the team and straight- Muck Manual, and Youati and Martin on Cattle ; en the chain so as to get an even draft and full pow. Downing's Fruit and Fruit Trees. In asking for
the others I have purchased, with the exception of er ; but the team is there, and will perform the work Davy's Agricultural Chemistry, they gave me a effectually by-and-by. We tender our thanks for London edition of 1844, by Sir Humphrey Davy, kind attentions, congratulate them upon their au- but edited by John Shur. Was that right : spicious prospects, and wish them abundant success
Is there no later edition of the Farmer's Encyin all their future efforts in the noble cause.
clopædia and Harris on Insects, than 1852 ? I have perused these books with pleasure and profit.
REMARKS.—There has not been, to our knowPor the New England Parmer. ledge, an American edition of Davy's Chemistry, THE POTATO BORER.
and no later edition of the Encyclopædia or Harris'
Insects than 1852. FRIEND BROWN :—Having your attention called to a worm found in the potato vines, you express a
QUESTIONS HARD TO desire to be made acquainted with his history and character. With this worthy I think I may claim an acquaintance of many years standing, and though “I wish to ask if there is much chance for a young knowing no good of him, doubt his capacity for any man without money to get ahead in the country? very extensive evil. Unless very greatly deceived Is there much time for reading and study? Do in the individual, I have had the honor-am I to you know of a good farmer that wants, or would say rare honor ?—of his acquantance, man and boy, take on trial such a youngster as I shall describe mysome thirty years, having occasionally met him at self to be ? I am 5 feet 8 inches high, rather slenhis work in potato and dahlia stalks, and more der, 19 years of age, have a good common school or less every year in corn stalks.
education; I am industrious, honest and sober, and Five years since I had some choice dahlias present-can obtain certificates to these facts from reliable ed me, which he almost entirely destroyed, before I persons, and I neither chew or smoke tobacco.” detected the cause. This year he figured pretty ex REMARKS. - Industry, Honesty and Sobriety are tensively in my stalks, both corn and potatoes, which I attributed—as I did the excess of grubs and other
three cardinal virtues, and they do not often fail of similar vermin—to our cold, backward spring. He success. But it is an up-hill work to go to farming is about one inch in length, with a dark head, flesh- "without money.” That must be earned or borcolored neck, tail and belly, and a brown or choco-rowed first. Now who will take our young friend, late-colored back; in motion, nimble and active,
on trial, among our numerous good farmers, and moving up and down his hole in the pith or heart of the stalk with great ease and speed, for a worm, and pay him a fair compensation for his labor, and teach when placed upon the ground, propelling as if he him the art which he aspires to learn ? That, in heard the dinner-horn. Evidently a stalk-jobber by our opinion, is just what his case requires—to go profession, though rarely seen, I presume, at the into a kind family, on a good farm that is conducted broker's board. He has, however, completely systematically and with some considerable degree wormed himself into the business, and is quite as successful in his operations, and as essentially uses
of science, where he could at the same time earn up the stocks upon which he operates, as the most something with which to make a beginning, and acaccomplished among them ; I should never suspect quire a knowledge of the business of the farm. him of the “potato-rot,” however, as does one of We could refer to gentlemen in our own, and your correspondents, stalk-jobber though he be. Îndeed, from my knowledge of his habits and pro
many other towns in the State, who could be expensities, I should deem him much more capable ceedingly useful to young men in this way, and not of tunnelling the Hoosac, and that, you perceive, be losers themselves. Most happy shall we be to is setting him down as a very great bore, as since inform “F. E. C.,” of N -t, of such an opportuthat scurvy afffair of the dahlias I have a perfect nity whenever it is made known to us. In the right to do.
meantime, we refer him to the article in another East Woburn, Sept., 1855.
column, on the Study of Agriculture, and to the
advertisement of Prof. NASH. LAKE SUPERIOR COPPER MINES.-From reliable sources we learn that the production of copper this season will be about 5,000 tons mine weight, amounting to say 3,500 tons of ingot copper, being fully I send you a few of my apricots, for the purpose one-seventeenth of the entire product of the world. of ascertaining the name of the kind. I suppose The product of another year will, in all probability, them to be either the Moorpark or Peach Apricot, be much greater than that of the present. The val- but as I have no other sort with which to compare ue of copper for the present year will be about them, I cannot satisfy myself of which variety they $1,750,000. Another year it will probably reach are. The descriptions in the books are very much $2,500,000.
alike. On the 25th of last month, I took one from