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life with wild nature. Many tired weak human creatures that came brain-workers have recourse to moun- among them, and who were ready to tain ascents as a restorative, but these give that responsive sympathy which can rarely be performed alone, and is the sustaining ichor of life. high mountains with their immense The same causes produce the same horizons tend to overwhelm rather effects; man may offer surprises but than to collect the mind. But to wan never men. Wherever there are sollder alone in a forest, day after day, taries, there are friendships between without particular aim, drinking in the the recluse and the wild beast.

All pungent odors of growing things, ford sorts of stories of lions and other aniing the ice-cold streams, meeting no mals that were on friendly terms with one but a bird or a hare—this will the monks of the desert have come leave a memory as of another exis- down to us in the legends of the tence in some enchanted sphere. We Saints, and as soon as the hermit aphave tasted an ecstasy that cities can pears in Europe, his four-footed not give. We have tasted it and we friends appear with him. For inhave come back into the crowded tance, there was the holy Karileff who places, and it may be well for us that tamed a buffalo. Karileff was a man of we have come back, for not to all is noble lineage who took up his abode given to walk in safety alone with with two companions in a clearing in their souls.

the woods on the Marne, where he was of one of the earliest Christian soon surrounded by all sorts of wild anchorites in Egypt it is related that things. Amongst these was a buffalo, for fifty years he spoke to no one; he one of the most intractable of beasts roamed in a state of nature, flying in its wild state, but this buffalo befrom the monks who attempted to ap came perfectly tame, and it was a proach him. At last he consented to charming sight to see the aged saint answer some questions put by a re- stroking it softly between its horns. cluse whose extreme piety caused him Now it happened that the king, who to be better received than the others. was Childebert, son of Clovis, came to To the question of why he avoided man- know that there was a buffalo in the kind, he replied that those who dwelt neighborhood, and forthwith he orwith men could not be visited by dered a grand hunt. The buffalo, seeangels. After saying this, he vanished ing itself lost, fled to the hut of its again into the desert. I have observed holy protector, and when the huntsthat the idea of renouncing the world men approached they found the monk was not a Western idea; yet, at the standing in front of the animal. The point where it touches madness, it had king was furious, and swore that Karialready penetrated into the West-we leff and his brethren should leave the know where to find its tragic record: place forever; then he turned to go,

but his horse would not move one step. Ego vitam agam sub altis Phygiae This filled him with what was more

columinibus Ubi cerva silvicultris, ubi aper ne lost no time in asking the saint for his

likely panic fear than compunction-he morivagus?

blessing, and he presented him with The point of madness would have the whole domain, in which an abbey been reached more often but for the was built and ultimately a town, the charity of the stag and the wild boar present Saint-Calais. On another ocand the lion and the buffalo, who felt casion, the same Childebert was huntà sort of compassion for the harmless, ing a hare, which took refuge under

the habit of St. Marculphe; the king's may be reformed by a good dinner and huntsman rudely expostulated, and by nothing else. The contract was kept the monk surrendered the hare, but, lo on both sides, and the wolf lived hapand behold, the dogs would not con- pily for two years, “nutricato cortese, tinue the pursuit and the huntsman mente, dalla gente," at the end of fell off his horse!

which he died of old age, sincerely Evidently there is only a slight ele- mourned by all the inhabitants. ment of the miraculous in these If any one decline to believe in the legends, and none at all in others, such wolf of Gubbio, why he must be left as the story of Walaric, who fed little to his invincible ignorance. But there birds and bade the monks not to ap- are other tales in the "Fioretti" and in proach or frighten his "little friends" the "Legenda Aurea" which are no; while they were picking up the crumbs wise hard to believe. What more which he threw to them. Passing by likely than that Francis, on meeting a many examples of the same kind, we youth who had wood-doves to sell, come to St. Francis of Assisi, who, in looked at the birds "con l'occhio some respects, stands alone.

pietoso," and begged the youth not to How St. Francis tamed the wolf of give them into the cruel hands that Gubbio is the most famous, if not alto- would kill them? The young man, gether the most credible, of the animal "inspired by God," gave the doves to stories related of him. That wolf was the saint, who held them against his a quadruped without morals; not only breast, saying, "O, my sisters, innohad he eaten kids, but also men. All cent doves, why did you let yourselves attempts to kill him failed, and the be caught? Now will I save you from townsfolk were afraid of venturing death and make nests for you, so that outside the walls even in broad day you may increase and multiply accord. light. One day St. Francis, against ing to the commandment of our the advice of all, went out to have a Creator." Schopenhauer mentions, serious talk with the wolf. He soon with emphatic approval, the Indian found him, and "Brother Wolf," he merchant at the fair of Astrachan who, said, "you have eaten not only animals when he has a turn of good luck, goes but men made in the image of God, to the market-place and buys birde, and certainly you deserve the gallows; which he sets at liberty. The holy nevertheless, I wish to make peace be - Francis not only set his doves free, but tween you and these people, brother thought about their future, a refineWolf, so that you may offend them no ment of benevolence which might "almore, and neither they nor their dogs most have persuaded" the humane shall attack you.” The wolf seemed to though crusty old philosopher to put agree, but the saint wished to have a on the Franciscan habit. distinct proof of his solemn engage (At this point I chance to see from ment to fulfil his part in the peace, my window a kitten in the act of anwhereupon the wolf stood up on his noying a rather large snake. It is a hind legs and laid his paw on the coiled-up snake; probably an Itongo. saint's hand. Francis then promised It requires a good five minutes to inthat the wolf should be properly fed duce the kitten to abandon its quarry for the rest of his days, “for well I and to convey the snake to a safe know," he said, kindly, "that all your place under the myrtles. This being evil deeds were caused by hunger", done, I resume my pen.) upon which text several sermons might I have remarked that in some re. be preached, for truly many a sinner spects the Saint of Assisi stands apart

from the other saints who took notice: path lest they should be crushed, and of animals. It was a common thing, during the winter frosts, for fear that for instance, for saints to preach to the bees should die in the hive, he creatures, but there is an individual brought honey to them and the best note in the sermon of Francis to the wines he could find. Near his cell at birds which is not found elsewhere. Portiuncula there was a fig-tree, and The reason why St. Anthony preached on the fig-tree lived a cicada. One day to the fishes at Rimini was that the the Servant of God stretched out his "heretics" would not listen to him, and hand and said, “Come to me, my sisSt. Martin addressed the water-fowl ter Cicada;" and at once the insect who were diving after fish in the Loire flew upon his hand. And he said to it, because, having compared them to the "Sing, my sister Cicada, and praise devil, seeking whom he may devour, thy Lord.” And having received his he thought it necessary to order them permission she sang her song. The to depart from those waters-which biographies that were written without they immediately did, no doubt fright the inquisition into facts which we deened to death by the apparition of a mand, gave a living idea of the man, gesticulating saint and the wild-look

not a photograph of his skeleton. What ing multitude. The motive of Francis mattered if romance were mixed with was neither pique at not being listened truth when the total was true? We to nor the temptation to show miracu know St. Francis of Assisi as if he had lous skill as a bird-scarer; he was been our next-door neighbor. It moved solely by an effusion of tender would have needed unbounded genius sentiment. Birds in great quantities to invent such a character, and there had alighted in a neighboring field: a was nothing to be gained by inventing beautiful sight which every dweller in it. The legends which represent him the country must have sometimes

as one who consistently treated aniseen and asked himself, was it a par mals as creatures endowed with reason llament, a garden party, a halt in a

are in discord with orthodox teaching; journey? "Wait a little for me here they skirt dangerously near to heresy. upon the road," said the saint to bls' Giordano Bruno was accused of havcompanions, “I am going to preach to ing said that men and animals had the my sisters the birds.” And so, "hav

same origin; to hold such an opinion ing greeted them as creatures endowed qualified you for the stake. But the with reason," he went on to say: Church that canonized Buddha under “Birds, my sisters, you ought to give the name of St. Josephat, has had at great praise to your Creator, who

times accesses of toleration which dressed you with feathers, who gave must have made angels rejoice. you wings to fly with, who granted

St. Francis of Assisi was a Fakeer you all the domains of the air, whose or Dervish of the West. Even the solicitude watches over you.” The

name of poverello, by which he liked to birds stretched out their necks, flut be called—what does it mean but tered their wings, opened their beaks, Fakeer or Dervish? When the inheand looked at the preacher with atten- rent mysticism in man's nature brought tion. When he had done, he passed in the midst of them and touched them

? It is at least curious to recall that Francis with his habit, and not one of them is thought to have been at one time a Troubastirred till he gave them leave to fly dour, and that the Troubadours had many links

with those Neo-Manichaean heretios whom Cath. away.

olics charged with believing in the transmigraThe saint lifted worms out of the tion of souls.

the Dervishes into existence soon after a zoological garden is not the forest Mohammed's death, in spite of the primeval, and the tiger, nurtured by prophet's well-meaning dislike for English officers, knew not the saint. monasticism, they justified themselves He tore the poor arm so ruthlessly that by quoting the text from the Koran: the man died after two or three days "Poverty is my pride." It would serve of suffering, borne with heroic pathe Franciscans equally well. The beg tience. ging friar was an anachronism in the Those who try to divest themselves religion of Islam as he is an anachron of human nature rarely succeed, and ism in modern society. But what did the reason nearest to the surface why, that matter to him?

over all the world, the lonely recluse The pre-eminently holy Dervishes made friends with animals was doubtcalled Abdals lived alone in the desert less his loneliness. On their side, aniwith friendly wild beasts, over whom mals have only to be persuaded that they exercised an extraordinary sway. men are barmless for them to meet There were several Abdals of high re their advances half-way. If this is not pute during the reigns of the early always true of wild beasts, it is beOttoman Sultans. Perhaps there was cause (as St. Francis apprehended) unmore confidence in their sanctity than fortunately they are sometimes hunin their sanity, for while a Catholic gry; but man is not the favorite prey historian finds it inconvenient to admit of any wild beast who is in his right the hypothesis of madness as account mind. Prisoners who tamed mice or ing for even the wildest conduct of the sparrows followed the same impulse saints of the desert, a devout Oriental as saints who tamed lions or buffaloes. sees no irreverence in recognizing the How many a prisoner who returned to possible affinity between sainthood and the fellowship of men must have remental alienation. In India the holy gretted his mouse or his sparrow! recluse who tames beasts may be either Animals can be such good company. Mussulman or Brahman; his vocation Still, it follows that if their society does not depend on belief in metempsy was sought as a substitute, they were, chosis, for we meet him where that be in a certain sense, vicarious objects of lief is not. Whatever is very old is affection. We forget that even in in. still a part of the everyday life of the ter-human affections much is vicarious. Indian people. Accordingly, the native The sister of charity gives mankind newspapers frequently report that the love which she would have given some prince was attacked by a savage to her children. The ascetic who will beast while out hunting, when at the never hear the pattering feet of his nick of time a venerable saint ap boy upon the stairs, loves the gazelle, peared, at whose first word the beast the bird fallen from its nest, the lion politely relaxed its hold. A very good cub whose mother has been slain by authority by no means thinks that all the hunter. And love, far more than these stories are invented. In this charity, blesses him that gives as well case the hero is generally a Jogi, a

as him that takes. Hindu, but it was a Mussulman an But human phenomenà are complex, chorite who, a few years ago, thrust and this explanation of the sympathy his arm into the cag of a tiger at La between saint and beast does not cover hore in the conviction that the animal the whole ground. Who can doubt would recognize his holy power. Alas,

that these men, whose faculties were

concentrated on drawing nearer to the 3 Vide Beast and Man in India. By John Lock. wood Kipling, p. 896.

Eternal, vaguely surmised that wild

living creatures had unperceived chan Beside the need to love and the need nels of communication with spirit, to wonder, some of them knew the hidden rapports with the Fountain of need to pity. Here the ground widens, Life which man has lost or has never for the heart that feels the pang of the possessed? Who can doubt that in the meanest thing that lives does not beat vast cathedral of Nature they were only in the hermit's cell or under the awed by “the mystery which is in the sackcloth of a saint. face of brutes" ?

E. Martinengo Cesaresco. The Contemporary Review.




ing young men in positions of impor

tance and responsibility. I have suffered In the police office sat a constable, much from the custom myself, and am writing at a high desk. My hasty en therefore in a position to judge. Thus trance brought him to meet me.

two circumstances combined to render "I wish to see the Chief," I said, "at my relations with this officer rather once, if he is here.”

delicate. The man seemed about to ask a qués When I entered he rose to meet me; tion; but I felt that it was no time for but my visible excitement did not apceremony. "It is a matter of urgency," pear to affect him in the least. "My I went on. "I must see him immediate business is very urgent,” I said. “It is ly."

connected with the robbery of jewels He took my name and tapped at a at the Hotel Petersburg last night. I door which stood on the other side of know where to find the thief, and I the office. After a moment he turned want the assistance of yourself or one and beckoned me to enter. Then I of your men.” found myself alone with the Chief Con "Indeed!" said the Chief Constable. stable of Leachester.

"Pray, sit down, Mr. Crossley. I have He sat at a writing-table, with a sheaf just been reading the account in the of papers before him and a newspaper Echo." on the floor beside his chair. Rather There was something so matter-ofto my surprise he was a comparatively fact in his manner that I could not but young man, and, more to my surprise, feel provoked. I have always felt a he was a young man whom I had pre certain antagonism towards men of viously seen. He was, in fact, the very phlegmatic temperament, partly, no man who, scarcely an hour before, had doubt, because such a temperament is spoken at my meeting in such a critical so directly opposed to my own. I sat and unfavorable manner with regard down, however, and plunged into my to my discoveries.

narrative at once, giving him a brief This was surprising, and not entirely account of the incidents which had pleasant; so, also, was the fact of his taken place, and also an outline of my being so young. I entertain very strong own plans. He listened with the same opinions as to the custom, which seems calmness throughout. This attitude to be steadily gaining ground, of plac. provoked me still further, and I saw at

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