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its peculiar though not sovereign gov. noticed the chief topics upon which the ernment, managing its own revenues and country arraigns the Twenty-Ninth expenditure, levying custom-house duties Congress. We bave passed over the of its own, and maintaining a distinct absurd rhodomontades of the Oregon de. system of taxation, but not permitted to bate, and many subjects of minor import use its power so as to impose restrictions which concern the morals and decorum and disabilities upon the trade of the of the Halls of Legislation, and have mother country.”
brought into view only the War, the · This is the language of Great Britain, Tariff, and the Sub-Treasury, as the speaking her conviction of the value of special questions by which the fame of her colonies. The reader will be struck this Congress, in good or evil report, is at the prevailing idea which runs through likely to be determined. In regard to it all, the fear that a community left to these, we have no language but that of itself would never adopt this genial prin- censure. But there are and we take ciple of Free Trade, but must be coerced pleasure in adverting to them—there are to take such a blessing”—that the “ let incidents belonging to the proceedings of us alone” policy, so lauded by these this Congress which entitle it to comsame writers, is the most imaginable mendation. It has done an act of justice privilege to be conferred upon a country in the French Spoliation bill, for which with which England wisbes to trade, it deserves the thanks, not of the claim. and that, in fine, that celebrated saying, ants only, but of every citizen who reso current at the date of our Revolution, spects the integrity of the nation. We “ America shall not manufacture a hob- commend this Congress for the spirit nail,” lay at the very foundation of these with which it has shaken off the tramnotions of free trade. Mr. Walker's re- mels of old party discipline in the ques. port was greeted in England because it tion of the Internal Improvements. We fell in with these views; it proposed a are not disposed to scrutinize the ingecommercial re-colonization, and offered nuity with which the River and Harbor to Great Britain all that she found valu. bills were reconciled to the rescripts of able in the colonial relation, without Gen. Jackson, nor to do more than coneven “the responsibility and expense of gratulate Mr. Calhoun for his happy superintending our government." There and timely discovery of the Mediterrais abundant reason in these disclosures
nean Seas, through which he has found for the fervid congratulations of the Sec- a safe passage for the Constitution in its retary. It is the first time that such a voyage to the Western Rivers: we are piece of flattery has ever been bestowed too much gratified at these retrogrades by a British Parliament upon an Ameri- towards the old and approved Whig doccan minister for such aid to British policy trines, and too much pleased with the in its struggle against American, and we prospect they open of future good to the hope it will be the last.
country, to allow ourselves to call up We charge it against the Twenty. invidious recollections or comment upon Ninth Congress that, with a conviction the mode in which the change has been on the part of several of its members of produced. We applaud the Twentythe unsoundness of the free trade princi- Ninth Congress for these, and could wish ple, with a knowledge, on the part of it had been thus in all things. The veto many more, that it was contrary to the of Mr. Polk has cropped these honors interest and wishes of their constituents, in the moment of their ripening, and it is and, on the part of all, that the policy with no small gratification we perceive was both new and, to say the least of it, signs of growing displeasure against this hazardous to the country, they gave their fearful prerogative of the Executive in support to this British system in contra- quarters where it is likely to be effective. distinction to our American system, and We rejoice that this is one item in the that, in this act, they have struck a bead-roll of grievances which the people disastrous blow at the comfort and pros are reckoning amongst the motives that perity of a large mass of the people. are every day growing more cogent to
We hasten to a conclusion. In what place the Whigs in power. we have already written, we have briefly
JOHN P. KENNEDY.
Having designed to present to the pub- we will proceed to enumerate his literalic, occasionally, the features of some one ry productions. of our distinguished Representatives, as In 1832, he published Horse Shoe Robwell as of our Senators, or eminent na inson, the first idea of which he received tional characters deceased, we have cho. from an accidental acquaintance with the sen to commence with a gentlemen, whose Hero of it, whom he met in the Pendlewithdrawal (temporary we hope) from ton District of South Carolina in 1818, politics, bas left him for a time in the and from whom he received some interquite of private life.
esting particulars of his own participaThe services of Mr. Kennedy to the tion in ihe war of the Revolution, which public, in both a literary and political ca were faithfully introduced into the story. pacity, have been great enough to give This work of fiction was perhaps as exoccasion for an extended notice. We tensively read as any one produced among must content ourselves, however, with us, with the exception of two or three of presenting a few scattered facts in his life, Mr. Cooper's. from the want of more ample materials. In 1838, he produced Rob of the Bowl,
MR. KENNEDY's father emigrated from a story intended to illustrate some porthe north of Ireland, and setiled in Bal. tion of the early history of Maryland. timore, where he became an active and in particular the wild, reckless character prosperous Merchant. He married a and stern and bloody career of the Bucdaughter of Philip Pendleton, of Berkley caneers of the Gulf—“ The Brothers of County, Virginia. From this union there the Bloody Coast”-was vividly set forth were four sons, of whom John was the in this fiction, one of their leaders with oldest. He was born in Baltimore, 25th his piratical crew being introduced as of October, 1795, and was educated at cruising along the shores of Maryland. the Baltimore College, where he was 1840, he wrote and published Quod. graduated in 1812.
libet, a political satire written during the In 1814 he served as a volunteer-a Presidential canvass of that year, and private soldier in the ranks at the battles having special reference to the scenes and of Bladensburg and North Point. topics of that contest.
In 1816 he was admitted to the Balti. Mr. Kennedy, besides these more exmore Bar, and began a successful prac- tended writings, has delivered many pubtice in that city.
lic addresses upon invitations from vaIn 1818 he, in conjunction with his rious Societies ; among them, highly accomplished friend, Peter Hoff- In 1834, One before the Horticultural Soman Cruse, published in Baltimore a lit
ciety of Maryland. tle work in 2 vols. called The Red Book. “ 1835, A discourse on the Life and It appeared in numbers, at intervals of
character of William Wirt; about a fortnight, and was of a playful,
delivered at the request of satirical character. The book, though of
the Baltimore Bar. an ephemeral nature, excited a good deal
The Annual Address before the of attention.
American Institute of New In 1820 Mr. Kennedy was elected to
York. the Legislature of Maryland, as a dele
Address before the Faculty of gate from the city of Baltimore, and was
Arts and Sciences of the Unire-elected in 1821 and 1822.
versity of Maryland ; in which In 1830, Mr. Kennedy first became an
he had been appointed Profesauthor, publishing Swallow Barn in the
sor of History course of that year. This book was de
Address delivered at the consesigned to be a picture of the manners,
cration of Green Mount Ce. customs and peculiarities of Eastern Vir
metry, near Baltimore. ginia. The narrative was pleasantly
Sundry Lectures on various drawn up, and obtained for the young
subjects. Author a gratifying reputation. Leaving “ 1845, Address before the Maryland out of view for the present his political
Historical Society on the Life occupations in the interval succeeding,
and character of Geo. Calvert.
Mr. Kennedy's life may be regarded in shipping interest of this country, which a two-fold aspect—his labors as an Au- widely commanded attention. Several thor and his career as a Statesman being other reports from his Committee evinced diverse but inseparable. The latter may like ability and research. He also, in be said to have commenced with his behalf of a Committee appointed by a election to the Maryland Legislature in meeting of the Whig members of both 1820, when 25 years of age, four years Houses, drew the celebrated “MANI. after his admission to the Bar, two years FESTO” of the Whig members at the close after his debut as an Author. Re-elected of the Extra Session, exposing and de. in 1821, and again in 1823, he was the nouncing the treachery of John Tylerfollowing year appointed by President a document rarely surpassed in ability, Monroe Secretary of Legation to Chili; perspicuity and scathing vigor. which appointment he resigned before Indeed, it may be asserted, that no perthe Mission was ready to sail.
son in this countrywrites on political ques. Espousing the side of the Administra- tions with more clearness, eloquence and tion of Mr. Adams, while continuing to convincing argument, than Mr. Kennedy. reside in the strongly Jacksonian city of His style in his literary productions bas Baltimore, Mr. Kennedy was now vir- always evinced many excellent qualities; tually shut out from public life for years. but when he touches great national topBut his interest in public affairs was un- ics, he seems to be imbued with a new diminished, and bis activity in support of power. The same qualities which give his cherished principles unimpaired. In him this peculiar ability on such topics, 1830 he wrote an elaborate review of Mr. render him also a rapid and eloquent narCambreleng's Report on Commerce and rator on historical subjects, as several of Navigation, ably controverting the Anti- his public addresses testify, and as will Protective fallacies of that Report
. The doubtless be shown by his Biography of next year he was a Delegate from Balti. William Wirt, on which he is now enmore to the National Convention of gaged. Friends of Manufacturing Industry, The State having been re-districted, he which met in New York, late in the au was again elected to the House in 1743, tumn, by which he was appointed on the from the single district composed of the Committee to draft an Address in defence greater portion of the city of Baltimore, and and commendation of the Protective poli- served through the XXVIIIth Congress. cy, which, in conjunction with his col. In 1845 he was once more presented for leagues, Warren "Dutton of Massachu- re-election, but defeated by the diversion setts, and Charles J. Ingersoll of Penn- of a small portion of the Whig vote to a sylvania, he did, each writing a part.
• Native American' candidate. In OctoIn the autumn of 1838, he was elected ber of this year, (1846,) the Whigs of the a member of Congress from the double city insisted on having his name on their district of Baltimore city and Anne Arun. Assembly ticket, and, to the astonishdel county--the first time a Whig had ment of their brethren throughout the been elected from that district. He was Union, he was elected, with two of his promptly recognized and respected as one colleagues, in a city which gave a heavy of the ablest of the many able new mem- majority against Henry Clay two years bers, which the changes consequent on before, and still heavier against the Whig the monetary revulsion of 1837 had candidate for Governor in that year. So brought into the House. In 1841 he Mr. K. will this winter serve the city of was again elected, and, on the assem. his nativity in that capacity wherein he bling of the Whig Congress of that year, first evinced the qualities which have elhe was appointed chairman of the Com- evated him to a rank among the most mittee on Commerce. In that capacity eminent of American Legislators and he drew a Report on our so-called Reci. Statesmen. procity Treaties, and their effect on the
Among the means recently resorted to Before, however, we commence this by the General Government to regulate particular subject, we desire to enter our our commercial relations with foreign solemn protest against this mode of abolnations, no one has had a more injurious ishing our revenue laws. The power to effect upon our best interests, both foreign regulate commerce is expressly given to and domestic, than what are very falsely Congress by the Constitution, and therecalled “ Reciprocity Treaties.”
fore it cannot be competent for the PreSome of these the writer has already i sident and Senate, by the Treaty-making commented upon in the National Maga- power, to annul a law of Congress which zine, with a promise, then given, to no has fixed :he rate of duty payable on artice others. It is now his purpose to ticles imported, or to be imported, from show up the Treaty made by Mr. Whea. any one country, by reducing them. We ton with the German Zoll.Verein, which might show the unconstitutionality and was,very properly,rejected by the Senate. injustice of making treaties to favor one
His reason for so doing is, that he has particular interest at a great sacrifice to been informed, from good authority, that others; but this is unnecessary, as the a new Treaty with that power is in anti- broad ground first assumed is perfectly cipation; and there is no better way to tenable and has been taken and sustainplace before the public the merits of our ed by some of the ablest men of the commercial intercourse with Germany country. than by a reference to the former Treaty, But to return to the matter in hand : which, had it been adopted, would have the benefits urged by the friends of Mr. done, as will be shown, the most mani. Wheaton's treaty were, first, a diminufest injustice to our commerce, and to the tion of duty on rice of twenty per cent; home industry.
second, no duty to be assessed on our The great article of export from the raw cotton; third, a diminution of twenUnited States to the territories included ty per cent of the duty on lard; fourth, in the Zoll-Verein, is Tobacco; and it is a deduction of one and a half Prussian to aid that particular interest that it is still thalers per centner on American leaf toproposed to make a treaty with them. bacco, and of two and a half Prussian
The writer has examined this subject thalers per centner on American tobacco with great care, aided by an investigation stems. into the able reports and documents of Let us first examine the matter as reJ. Dodge, Esq. ; who was sent to Ger- gards “ Rice.” many in 1837 by our Government, as The Dutch Government, in 1838, sent special agent, and at the particular in- Commissioners to Berlin, with a view to stance of the Tobacco interest of this the reduction of duties on certain articles. country. Mr. Dodge appears to have Among these was Rice, the produce of well understood the subject in all its Java. These Commissioners succeeded, bearings; and it is to be regretted he was and the duty on Rice, both from Java, not continued as the public agent, for, and subsequently from the United States, from the various documents emanating was reduced two thalers per centner. from him, (and published by order of This reduction produced a great augmenCongress,) in the discharge of his duty, lit- tation of the revenue, by increased contle doubt can be entertained that he would sumption; and about six years since, it have effected the object of his mission, in was understood that a further reduction a manner that would have given satisfac- would be made on Java and American tion to all parties, abroad and at home. rice, as soon as experience had confirmMr. Dodge's mission ended in 1841, byed the increase in the revenue. So that our Government refusing to continue it. the reduction on rice did not depend upon
Let us now examine_the proposed the Treaty, but would and will take benefits of the Wheaton Treaty ; for in place, from motives of self-interest. so doing, with the aid furnished by the With respect to Raw Cotton, it is the published documents of Mr. Dodge, from settled policy of the Zoll. Verein, and one which we make large extracts, we shall from which they dare not swerve, to adget at the merits of the case, and thus, mit cotton free of duty. Mr. Dodge has perhaps, aid in preventing similar sacri- fully shown this, and we refer to the folfices from being hereafter made. lowing extract of his report to our Min.
ister at Berlin, dated Berlin, August 31, We come now to the article of tobacco, 1839 :
and here we shall have to draw largely “I have heard it remarked in Germany, upon the documents furnished by Mr. that should the United States apply retalia. Dodge. tory duties on the manufactures of this
The diminution on tobacco, in Mr. country, the Zoll-Verein might possibly, in Wheaton's treaty, is one and a half Prusthat case, put a duty on our raw cotton. Isian thalers per centner-equal to about do not feel the slightest apprehension of one cent per American pound, or about their so doing; for Prussia, Bavaria, Baden, twenty-seven per cent from the former and Saxony, in which countries the manu- duty of five and a half thalers per cent. factures of cotton, and in the last named of
And on stems the deduction is two hosiery, exist in most perfection, know too
and a half Prussian thalers per centnerwell their own interests ever to put a duty equal to one and a half cents per pound; knowledge of the industry of Germany, I American. The treaty diminution is still know that such a measure would be de a specific duty, levied on the weight withstructive to their spinneries and to their out regard to the quality or cost of the cotton cloth and hosiery manufactures, and article, and though less in amount, is liaany one conversant with the subject must ble to the same inconveniences, as pointknow that such a measure would fail of its ed out by Mr. Dodge in his report alintended effect, (injury to our cotton plant- ready referred to. We quote also the ers,) for it would not prevent one single following from that document: pound less of our raw cotton from being exported to and manufactured in Europe. The injury it would do would be solely to
“But the practical operation of the tariff German industry, to the great benefit of of the Zoll-Verein is, on the contrary, England; the injury would be to the Rhen against the produce of the United States, ish provinces, to Bavaria, to Baden, to Sax: particularly as regards the leaf tobacco of ony; for one of these two things would be Spanish colonies; for it is well known that
our country, and greatly in favor of the the consequence: either the German man. ufactures of cotton cloth and hosiery would, the United States, and costs a much higher
the Cuba tobacco is far superior to that of from the enhanced price of the raw material in this country, be driven from foreign levies as high a duty on the leaf tobacco of
price; yet the tariff of the Zoll-Verein markets, or they would have to obtain their twist and yarn from England ; thus de- the Spanish colonies.”
our country as it does on that coming from stroying the German spinneries and enriching the English spinner. I again repeat, the Zoll-Verein will never lay a duty on
In the preceding paragraph to the one our raw cotton, for it would be solely to quoted, Mr. Dodge has fully shown that their own injury and to the benefit of Eng. there is no reciprocity in the tariff of the land, and it would not prevent the con
Zoll-Verein towards the liberal policy of sumption of one single pound less of our the United States. Nor is it believed there raw cotton in Europe ; for the same quan- is anything in the treaty to prevent the tity of cotton cloths and hosiery would be Zoll-Verein from diminishing, in like mansent to foreign markets, and the only differ, ner, the duty on Cuba tobacco, and in ence would be that the English weaver and
case of such reduction, the advantage hosiery manufacturers would have an increased demand for the supply of those
now enjoyed by that tobacco over the markets."
American will still continue.
The consumption of American leaf to. This report of Mr. Dodge was commu. bacco and of siems, within the limits of nicated to the Prussian Government by the Zoll-Verein, is about 30,000 hhds., the American Minister, October 1st, and and of leaf tobacco, 26,250 hhds. Estifrom that period no duty was exacted on mating the average weight at 1,000 lbs., raw cotton, nor is there any fear that it the proposed reduction of duties on leaf will hereafter be subjected to any, as it tobacco, of one cent per lb., would be would destroy the manufacture of that $262,500; and on stems, at one and a article throughout the territories of the half cents per 1b., would be $56,250— Zoll-Verein ; and yet this is pretended to making a tolal reduction in the duties on be an advantage gained by Mr. Whea- these articles of $318,750. ton's treaty.
There is little probability that the proOn the subject of " Lard,” little need posed reduction would much increase the be said, for it is not an article of export consumption of American raw tobacco in to the Hanse towns or to any other part the Zoll-Verein. Messrs. Wheaton and of Germany. That country produces Dodge conjointly addressed a memoLard enough for its own consumption. rial to the Deputies of the Zoll-Verein,