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of his nation, until he placed himself at the head of it, though he never was concealed from those who were reconnoitring the political horizon. When the convulsion of the earthquake waked the dead, as from an enchanted sleep, with their principles of ancient times, and sent them to Frankfort in company with those, who with their wishes were far in advance of the age, when one party desired to preserve what the revolution had overthrown at the will of the people, and the other party wished to go much further than the people had done, the eye of the true patriot was looking around for a rock to climb in this tempest-like commotion. Gagern entered the stand. His noble carriage, his tall figure, his stern eye looking calmly around upon the tumultuously contending parties, commanded respect. As soon as he spoke stillness reigned, and each found new hope in his words when he said, "the Commonwealth requires our attention; not the problems of the minority. We dare not destroy, but must build up. We must preserve the monarchy-the safety of our country depends on monarchy." The loudest acclammation of the crowded St. Paul's church was heard throughout Germany and re-echoed from all sides. Gagern at once had pointed out the way on which, ever since, the parliament has been moving. He gave the theme to the parliament for discussion: "Monarchy and the sovereignty of the people." Who will blame him for speaking from himself what he felt intensely to be the inmost want of the majority-which alone he knew would bring happiness and prosperity for the future, and would ripen men for a republic. A republic, indeed, is the best government. Nobody can deny that, living in this country or acquainted with our history; but people not taught to govern themselves are as unhappy in a republic as children deprived of their tutors. They will become the prey of their own ignorance. They must retain their government for some time, altering only the laws which bind them like slaves, and educating themselves and their children to manhood. Governments are like the corner stones of a building, take them away and the whole will fall and nothing is left to shelter the people. Therefore Gagern said, "we dare not destroy, we must build up." Build up the new building under the shelter of the old one. The will of the people had found its representative in Gagern, who desired to keep what nowhere was hurt by the people-the monarchy-and who wished to secure what the people had gained everywhere-their sovereignty. The people would be free except in electing the President and his Cabinet. The voice of the people assuredly is God's voice. The people's voice was heard in their uniform demands in their first outbreak. Woe to them who did not understand that.
The book with the above title speaks of Gagern, of his family, his childhood, his education; speaks of him as the farmer cultivating the soil of his estate, as the man of letters, as the President of the Parliament. Gagern, born in 1799, was the son of a man who, living in the eventful times of Napoleon, acted on different occasions as ambassador at Paris and Berlin; and the son's talent through the gift of God, improved more and more under the guidance of such a father; for the child is nourished by what is given to him, and to understand the man we must look at his childhood. What the boy strives for, he fully will obtain in manhood, says Goethe. The father's frequent return home gave opportunity to the son to hear of the events of the time from one who was nearly connected with them, and in this way he learned the views of the leaders. He became acquainted with their motive of action. Scarcely had he reached the age of fifteen when he took up arms against the common oppressor, fought the last great battle, and returned with an honorable Belle Alliance scar. After this, he pursued his studies at different colleges, and at the age of twenty-one entered the public office of his native land, Nassau, defending at the same time the rights of the people by liberal pamphlets. Elected to the Nassau Chamber, he was considered one of the opposition. Our book gives many of his speeches, some at length, some in extracts. His speeches are simple, but powerful, showing always the naked truth in a fearless way. They contain neither imagination nor mysterious phrases. The manly thought comes forth honestly, the word speaks the very meaning intended, and the hearers are not carried away by his oratory. The observer sees in the faces of the audience that anxious feeling which fears to lose by a new discussion the opinion already formed, and wishes that the voting might follow immediately.
Schomburgk's Voyages in British Guiana in the years 1840-44. Printed by order of the King of Prussia, with the Flora and Fauna with maps and sketches.
This book by Schomburgk is a most accepta ble gift to every friend of nature and her beauties. It bears some relation to the earliest voyages of Poppig and Johndy in South America, but is written with more truth and simplicity. The author is a naturalist, he describes the countries travelled over, as they appeared to his discerning eye, avoiding all trivial remarks about his own person, which too often destroy the main object in works of a similar kind. This book gives us a thorough knowledge of that country so little known. The reader is placed in the midst of
the rich prairies and forests of the southern continent. Our traveller sailed into the Demerara river in the beginning of 1841. The sudden change of scenery after the long sea-voyage burst upon him beautifully, awfully, unspeakably. He says, "In our homely, still, romantic vales, we are not familiar with this mysterious charm of tropical climates. The luxury of plants, the fresh green foliage of the trees is unknown us; even the most talented poet would in vain attempt to give any other description than a mere outline, as the most glowing language cannot inspire the mind of the reader with those feelings by which a man is overpowered while enjoying such a glorious sight. I can give but a faint idea and an imperfect sketch of this scenery. When after sunset the almost overpowering fragrance of the opposite gardens penetrated our windows, when at night each leaf of this waving sea of dark green whispered to me: 'stranger remember us when far distant,' when thousands of brilliant insects of every hue and color traversed the air, still I missed the friendly twilight of my home." Georgetown is a hospitable city of 23,000 inhabitants. The author makes some very striking remarks about the emancipation of slaves, which took place not long before his arrival, the consequences of which were so evident at that time. He speaks of the cotton-plantations, the sugar-fields, giving a minute report of their production. The trial of using European laborers was a failure, the traveller found but a few of those Portuguese and Germans left who were brought over to Guiana some years before. Sickness, fevers of all kinds prevail at all seasons, and make sad havoc among foreigners. He was several times attacked himself by fever, and it seems as if no one could enjoy the beauties of such a bountiful nature without endangering his life. Most frightful is the yellow fever; it was raging at his second visit to Charlestown, and he found the city almost deserted. Those whom the sickness had spared had left for more healthy places; none of the lovely girls, of whom he speaks in the highest terms, were seen then. Not less dangerous is the so called dry cholic, which like all the other diseases, except cholera, causes death much sooner in that climate than in our own. All seem to
be cholera there. The interior of Guiana abounds in wild beasts, snakes, and venomous insects; our traveller himself experienced their attacks. The rivers abound in alligators of the length of 12 to 16 feet. An Indian one day shot a large one, and as it appeared to be dead, he drew it to the shore by the assistance of his companions. They were about to cut it up when suddenly it arose, and throwing aside the men, ran off at full speed. At another time, an Indian killed a young one with an arrow, but he had scarcely time to escape, the mother of the young alligator attacking the murderer of her dearest with such a suddden rage. Other alligators joined her with a deafening howl, and the smooth water became a roaring sea by the incessant striking of their tails. The snakes are much to be dreaded, as they are concealed under thickets of underbrush. We find excellent descriptions of "the rattlesnake," of "the trigonocephalus atrox," of "the bushmaster," of "the parrot-snake," (cophias bilineatus,) and many others which he met. The aborigines possess many remedies against their bites, almost every village having its own. Among the insects the most frightful was the sand-flea, which enters the great toe right under the nail, laying its eggs there. At first a burning pain is felt, a blue spot appears, and a small bag of the size of a pea, contains hundreds of eggs. They can only be removed by a knife, and travellers, in order to avoid the consequences of their bite, must carefully examine their feet every morning. "The bête rouge" selects the softer parts of the body for its bites, producing corrosive ulcers. Mosquitos and ants are not less troublesome. Stung once by an ant, after a few hours the traveller fell down senseless; he was carried to an Indian hut, and was saved by the Indian after much suffering. The author relates a great deal of "the atta cephalotes," a kind of ants, the habits of which are interesting in the highest degree. They form a well regulated state, each doing its own work for the advantage of the commonwealth. The reader follows all these descriptions and stories with the greatest interest; the riding up the banks of the Essequibo river, the dangers and hardships he met there are of such a kind that nobody will lay aside the book without confessing how much it has delighted him.
ERRATA IN OCTOBER NUMBER.
Page 363, in the foot note, insert in second line, 'mighty' before 'mine.' In fourth line insert 'homes and' before haunts.' Page 365, first column, line 9th, for appeared' read' appears.' Same page and column, in the Traveller's Vision, first verse, second line, after the word 'outstretched,' read 'my.' (Bedouins is to be pronounced as a dissylable, Bed-weens; it is sometimes spelt Bedaweens.) Second verse of same poem, second line, insert a comma after 'beneath.' Same page, second column, sixth line from foot, omit and. Page 366, in poem 'Nebo,' second verse, fifth line, for in,' read on.' Same page, third verse, in first and fifth lines, for their,' read there.' Same page. fourth verse, first line, for Their,' read There.' Page 367, first column, seventh verse, third line, for tannin,' read tannen.' Same page, tenth verse, third line, for pastime,' read 'portion.' Same page, second column, last verse but two, first line, for were,' read once.' Page 368, first column, fourth line, for displays,' read display. Same page, same column. fourth verse, second line, for sands,' read 'mists.' Same page, second column, fourth verse, last line, for 'in,' read on.' Same page, same column, fifth verse, third line, for southern,' read 'southward.' Page 369, second column, twenty-third and twenty-fifth lines, for 'breakest,' read brakest.' Page 371, second column, sixteenth line from foot, omit word 'political.' Page 372, first column, eighth line, for 'our,' read one.' Same page, seccnd column, last verse but two, fourth line, after nine,' insert a comma.