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of a wider public, and the progress in the art of advertising | editorial duties on others, at first Sir William Hardman, and then as applied to the Press. The following sections on the more successively Mr A. K. Moore, Mr Algernon Locker, Mr James Nicol important newspapers in London and the Provinces fill in the Courier) and Mr Fabian Ware; under them
the literary standard of remaining details of the history of the British Press, so far the paper was kept at a high level, and constant improvements were as they are substantially important or interesting. Much that introduced; and the staff included a number of well-known writers, is in its nature ephemeral or trivial is necessarily passed professor of military history
at Oxford." From 1897 till his death in over. Modern London Newspapers.
1905, at the age of thirty-two, Lord Glenesk's son, Oliver Borthwick,
had much to do with the managerial side. On Lord Glencsk's own The Morning Post (oldest of existing London daily papers) dates death on the 24th November 1908, the proprietorship passed to the from 1772. For some years it was
in the hands of Henry Bate trustees of his only surviving child, a daughter, who in 1893 had “Mornlag
(Sir Henry Bate Dudley), and it attained some degree of married the 7th Earl Bathurst. Post."
temporary, popularity, though of no very enviable sort. The Times is usually dated from the 1st of January 1788, but
In 1795 the entire copyright, with house and printing was really started by John Walter on the 1st of January 1785, under materials, was sold for £600 to Peter and Daniel Stuart, who quickly the title of The London Daily Universal Register, printed raised the position of the Post by enlisting Sir James Mackintosh logographically. On its reaching its 940th issue its name
“The and the poet Coleridge in its service, and also by giving unremitting was changed." The logographic or "word-printing process
Times." attention to advertisements and to the copious supply of incidental had been invented by a printer named Henry Johnson several years news and amusing paragraphs. There has been much controversy before, and found a warm advocate in John Walter, who expounded about the share which Coleridge had in elevating the Post from its peculiarities at great length in No. 510 of his Daily Universal obscurity to eminence. That he greatly promoted this result there Register. In a later number he stated, very amusingly, his reasons can be no doubt. His famous " Character of Pitt," published in for adopting the altered title, which the enterprise and ability of his 1800, was especially successful, and created a demand for the par successors (see WalTER, JOHN) made world-famous. Within two ticular number in which it appeared that lasted for weeks, a thing years John Walter had his share in the Georgian persecutions of the almost without precedent. Coleridge wrote for this paper from 1795 press, by successive sentences to three fines and to three several antil 1802, and during that period its circulation in ordinary rose imprisonments in Newgate, chiefly for having stated that the prince from 350 copies, on the average, to 4500. Whatever the amount of of Wales and the dukes of York and Clarence had so misconducted rhetorical hyperbole in Fox's saying --recorded as spoken in the themselves“ as to incur the just disapprobation of his Majesty." House of Commons-"Mr Coleridge's essays in the Morning Post In 1803 the management was transferred (together with the joint led to the rupture of the treaty of Amiens" it is none the less a proprietorship of the journal) to his son, John Walter (2), by whom striking testimony, not only to Coleridge's powers as a publicist, it was carried on with extraordinary energy and consummate ability, but to the position which the newspaper press had won, in spite of and at the same time with marked independence. To Lord Sid. innumerable
obstacles at that time. The list of his fellow-workers mouth's government he gave a general but independent support. in the post is a most brilliant and varied one. Besides Mackintosh, That of Pitt he opposed, especially
on the questions of the Catamaran Southey and Aghur Young, it included a galaxy of poets. Many of expedition and the malversations of Lord Melville. This opposition the lyrics of Moore, many of the social verses of Mackworth Praed, was resented by depriving the elder Walter of the printing for the some of the noblest sonnets of Wordsworth, were first published in customs department, by the withdrawal of government advertisethe columns of the Post. And the story of the paper, in its early ments from The Times, and also, it is said, by the systematic detendays, had tragic as well as poetic episodes. In consequence of tion at the outports of the foreign intelligence addressed to its editor. offence taken at some of its articles, the editor and proprietor, John Walter the Second, however, was strong and resolute enough Nicholas Byrne (who succeeded Daniel Stuart), was assaulted and to brave the government. He organized a better system of news murdered whilst sitting in his office.
transmission than had ever before existed. He introduced steamUp to about 1850 the history of the Morning Post offers little printing (1814) and repeatedly improved its mechanism (see Printto record; with the Morning Chronide and Morning Herald, and ing); and although modern machines may now seem to thrust into having a smaller circulation than either of them, it was being rapidly insignificance a press of which it was at first announced as a notable eclipsed in London journalism by The Tin (see below), and in 1847 triumph that " no less than 1100 sheets are impressed in one hour," only sold some three thousand copics. Heavily in debt to Messrs J. yet the assertion was none the less true that The Times of 29th and T. B. Crompton, the paper manufacturers, it had been taken over November 1814 " presented to the public the practical result of the by them; and in that year the management was entrusted to Peter greatest improvement connected with printing since the discovery Borthwick (1804-1852), a Scotsman who, after graduation both at of the art itself." The effort to secure for The Times the best attainEdinburgh and Cambridge, had taken to politics in the Conservative able literary talent in all departments kept at least an equal pace interest and had sat in parliament for Evesham from 1835 to 1838 with those which were directed towards the improvement of its and from 1841 to 1847, when he was almost ruined by fighting an mechanical resources. And thus it came to pass that a circulation election petition in which he was unseated. Peter Borthwick took which did not,, even in 1815, exceed on the average 5000 copies the task of reviving the paper seriously in hand, and in a few years became, in 1834, 10,000; in 1840, 18,500; in 1844, 23,000; in 1851, was already improving its position when he fell ill and died; and he 40,000; and in 1854, 51,648. In the year last named the average was succeeded in 1852 by his son Algernon Borthwick, afterwards circulation of the other London dailies, was-Morning Advertiser, Lord Glenesk (1830-1908). The later history of the paper is prim. 7644; Daily News, 4160; Morning Herald, 3712; Morning Chronice, arily connected with its practical re-establishment and successful 2800; Morning Post, 2667; so that the supremacy of The Times can conduct under the latter.' Algernon Borthwick had been its Paris readily be understood. correspondent from 1850, and had shown social gists and journalistic Sir John Stoddart, afterwards governor of Malta, edited The Times acumen of great promise. When he became managing editor in for several years prior to 1816.
, 1852 he devoted himself with such energy to the work that in seven who for many years wrote largely in the paper. When his health years the debt on the business had been paid off. He gave the paper began to fail the largest share of the editorial work came into the a strong political colour, Conservative, Imperialist and Protectionist; hands of Captain Edward Sterling-the contributor about a quarter and in the 'fifties and 'sixties Borthwick was a keen supportet of of a century earlier of a noteworthy series of political letters signed Lord Palmerston. After the death of Mr Crompton, his nephew, “Vetus," the Paris correspondent of The Times in 1814 and subseMr Rideout, the principal surviving partner in the paper manu. quent eventful years, and afterwards for many years the most facturing firm, was so impressed with Borthwick's
success that he conspicuous among its leader-writers. From 1841 to 1877 the chief vested the entire
control of the paper in him for life; and on Mr editor was John Thadeus Delane, who had his brother-in-law G. W. Rideout's death in 1877, Borthwick was enabled, by the help of Dasent for assistant-editor, and another brother-in-law, Mowbray his friend Andrew Montague, to buy the property and become sole Morris, as business manager. By the time of the second John proprietor The Morning Post had now become, largely through Walter's death (1847), the substantial monopoly of The Times in Borthwick's own social qualities, the principal organ of the fashion. London journalism had been established; and under the proprietorable world; but in 1881 he took what was then considered the ship of the third John Walter the result of the labour of Delane as hazardous step of reducing its price from threepence to a penny, editor, and of the brilliant staff of contributors whom he directed, and appealing no longer to the threepenny public" with The among whom Henry Reeve wasconspicuous as regards foreign affairs, Times but to a wider clientèle with the Daily Telegraph and Standard. The result was a ten-fold increase in circulation and a financial See the centenary number of January 2, 1888; the pamphlet by success exceeding all anticipations. Borthwick himself, who was S. V. Makower, issued by The Times in 1904. "The History of The knighted in 1880, and was created a baronet in 1887, had entered Times"; and the article by Hugh Chisholm on “ The Times, 1785parliament in 1880 for Evesham, and from 1885 to 1895 sat for South 1908" in the National Review May 1908). Kensington, being finally raised to the peerage in 1895. His political ? See Life of John Sterling, by Carlyle, who says of him at this time: gifts naturally increased the influence of the paper; he supported “The emphatic, big-voiced, always influential and often strongly the "Tory democracy" and was an active worker for the Primrose unreasonable Times newspaper was the express emblem of Edward League, of which he was three times chancellor; and the Morning Sterling. He, more than any other man, was The Times, and Posi, under his control, became one of the great organs of Opinion thundered through it, to the shaking of the spheres." The nickco the Conservative side. From 1880 onwards he devolved the name of “The Thunderer," for The Times, came in vogue in his day.
was to turn the "favourite broadsheet " of the English public into service, with a special steamer, in the Far East, at the opening of the the “ leading journal of the world." When Delane retired, he was Russo-Japanese War. succeeded as editor by Thomas Chenery, and on his death in 1884 The price at which The Times has been sold has been changed at by George Earle Buckle (b. 1854). At the beginning of 1908 con various dates: in 1796 to 44d., 1799 to 6d., 1809 to 6 d., 1815 to 7d.; siderable changes took place in the proprietorial side of The Times, 1836 to 5d., 1855 to 4d., 1861 (Oct. 1) to 3d., and in 1904 (stili which was converted into a company, with Mr A. F. Walter (chief remaining at 3d.) it started a method of payment by subscription proprietor since 1891) as chairman and Mr C. Moberly Bell (b. 1847; which gave subscribers
an advantage in one form or another and thus manager since 1890) as managing director; the financial control in reality reduced the price further. In 1905 this advantage took passing into the hands of Lord Northcliffe.
the form of the price (30.) covering a subscription to The Times In the history of The Times its influence on the mechanical side of Book Club, a circulating library and book-shop on novel lines newspaper work was very great. The increasing circulation of The (see BOOKSELLING and PÚBLISHING). Times between the years 1840 and 1850 made an improvement in the The first number of the paper contained 57 brief advertisements, printing-presses necessary, as sometimes the publication could not be but as it grew in repute and in size its advertising revenue became completed before the afternoon. To meet this want the Applegath very large, and with the growth of this revenue came pari passu vertical press was introduced in 1848 and the American Hoe ten the means of spending more money on the contents. As far back as feeder press in 1858. Meanwhile the idea of stereotyping from the 1861 a single issue had contained 105 columns of advertisements, movable types had been making steady progress. About the year and another 98. Prior to 1884 the paper had only on two occasions 1856, however, a Swiss named Deliagana introduced to The Times consisted of 24 pages in a single issue. Bet ween that year and 1902 Kroning's idea of casting from pa pier-mâché instead of plaster, more than 80 separate issues of this size were published, many of and was allowed to experiment in The Times office. After a time them containing over 80 columns of advertisements. Of two issues, the invention was so much improved that matrices of pages could be one containing the news of the death and the other the account of taken and the stereotype plates fixed bodily on the printing machine the funeral of Queen
Victoria, 140,000 copies were printed. From in place of the movable type. This cleared the way for the intro that time issues of 20 pages and over became an ordinary matter. duction of the famous Walter press. Hitherto only one set of and on May 24,1909 (Empire Day), The Times signalized the occasion "formes " could be used, as the type was set up once only one side by bringing out a huge supplement of 72 pages full of articles on of the paper being worked on one machine and the sheets then taken Imperial topics. to another machine to be “perfected." Stereotyping enabled the The Times has long stood in a class by itself among newspapers, formes to be multiplied to any extent, as several plates could be cast owing to its abundance of trustworthy news, its high literary standard from one matrix. Mr MacDonald, the manager of The Times, had and its command of the ablest writers, who, however, are generally devoted himsell for several years to the production of a press which anonymous in its columns. It has always claimed to be a national could print papers on both sides in one operation from a large reel rather than a party organ. It was Liberal in its polítics in the of paper, the web of paper being cut into the required size after print. Reform days, but became more and more Conservative and Imir g, instead of each sheet being laid on " by a man and then printed.perialist when the Unionist and anti-Home Rule cra set in. On the After years of experiment the Walter press was introduced into the conversion of Mr Gladstone to Home Rule, The Times was, indeed. Times machine-room in 1869, and the question of printing great largely instrumental in forming the Liberal-Unionist party. In the pembers in a short time was solved. Each press turned out 12,000 course of its vigorous campaign against Irish Nationalism it published sheets per hour, and it was therefore only a question of multiplying as part of its case a series of articles on · Parnellism and Crime," the stereo plates and presses to obtain any number of printed papers including what were alleged to be facsimile reproductions of letters by a certain time. Meanwhile Messrs Hoe had set about producing from Mr Parnell showing his complicity with the Phoenix Park something, even quicker and better than the Walter press. They murders. The history of this episode, and of the appointment of succeeded in accomplishing this by multiplying the reels of paper on the Special Commission of investigation by the government, is told each press, and also adding folders and stitchers. The result was the under PARNELL. One of the strongest features of The Times has been production of over 36,000 sheets per hour from each machine. These always its foreign correspondence. presses were adopted by The Times in 1895.
Among leading incidents in the history of The Times a few may be In 1868 the question of composing machines for the quicker more particularly mentioned. In 1840 the Paris correspondent of setting up of type was taken up by The Times. A German named the paper (Mr O'Reilly) obtained information respecting a gigantic Kastenbein had an invention which he brought to the notice of The scheme of forgery which had been planned in France, together with Times, and arrangements were made for him to continue his ex- particulars of the examination at Antwerp of a minor agent in the periments in The Times office. In a couple of years a machine was conspiracy, who had been there, almost by chance, arrested. All made, which was worked and improved until in 1874 several machines that he could collect on the subject, including the names of the were ready to set up a portion of the paper; but it was not until chief conspirators, was published by The Times on the 26th of May 1879 that the arrangements were sufficiently advanced to make in that year, under the heading " Extraordinary and Extensive certain that they could do all that was wanted from them. The Forgery and Swindling Conspiracy on the Continent (Private introduction of composing machines, and the necessary alterations Correspondence)." The project contemplated the almost simultanein the office arrangements which followed, led to some trouble ous presentation at the chiel banking-houses throughout the Con. among the compositors, which in 1880 culminated in a partial strike: tinent of forged letters of credit, purporting to be those of Glyn & but a part of the staff remaining loyal, the printer was able by extra Company, to a very large amount; and its failure appears to have effort to produce the paper at the proper time on the morning been in a great degree owing to the exertions made, and the refollowing the strike. Various improvements were made, until one sponsibility assumed, by The Times. One of the persons implicated machine was able to set up as many as 298 lines of The Times in one brought an action for libel against the paper, which was tried at hour, equal to 16,688 separate types. A system of telephoning the Croydon in August 1841, with a verdict for the plaintiff, one farthing parliamentary report from the House of Commons direct to the com: damages. A subscription towards defraying the heavy expenses positor was begun in 1885, and was continued until the House decided (amounting to more ihan £5000) which The Times had incurred was to rise at midnight, which enabled the more economical method of speedily opened, but the proprietors declined to proht by it; and composing direct from the "copy" to be resumed.
the sum which had been raised was devoted to the foundation of Ever since the introduction of the composing machines the business two "Times scholarships," in connexion with Christ's Hospital and had been much hampered by the question of " distribution "-that the City of London School. Three years afterwards The Times is, the breaking up and sorting of the types after use. Kastenbein rendered noble public service in a different direction. It used its had invented a distributing machine to accompany his composing vast power with vigour-at the expense of materially checking the machine, but it proved to be unsatisfactory. Various systems were growth of its own advertisement fund-by denouncing the fraudulent tried at The Times office, but for many years the work of the schemes which underlay the "railway mania of 1845. The composing machines was to some extent crippled by the distribu- Parnell affair has already been mentioned. And more recently the tion difficulty. This had been recognized by Mr Frederick Wicks“ book war," arising out of the attack by the combined publishers (d. 1910), the inventor of the Wicks Rotary Type-casting Machine, on The Times Book Club in 1906, was prosecuted by the Times who for many years had been working at a machine which would with great vigour, until in 1908 it came quietly to an end. cast new type so quickly and so cheaply as to do away with the old Various adjuncts to The Times, issued by its proprietors, have system of distribution and substitute new type every day. In 1899 still to be mentioned. The Mail
, published three times a week his machine was practically perfect, and The Times entered into a at the price of 2d. per number, gives a summary of two days' issue contract with him to supply any quantity of new type every day, of The Times. The Times Weekly Edition (begun in 1877) is pubThe difficult question of distribution was thus surmounted, and lished every Friday at 2d., and gives an epitome of The Times for composition by machines placed on a satisfactory basis.
the six days. The Law Reports (begun
in 1884) are conducted by a Thus during the last half of the 19th century The Times continued special staff of Times law reporters. Commercial Cases deals with to take the lead in new inventions relating to the printing of a news cases of a commercial nature. Issues is a useful half-yearly compaper, just as it had in the fifty years preceding. The three most pilation of all the company announcements and demands for new important advances during the later period were practically worked capital, taken from the advertisement columns of The Times. out at The Times office--namely, fast-printing presses, stereotyping In 1897 The Times started a weekly literary organ under the title and machine composing, and without these it is safe to say that the of Literature. In 1901, however, a weekly literary supplement to dications of the enterprise of The Times in taking up journalistic of the proprietor of the Academy, with which paper it was incorchrap newspaper of the present day could not exist. Further in- The Times was issued instead, and Lilerature passed into the hands novelties may also be seen in its organizing a wireless telegraphy porated. The" Literary Supplement," which appears each Thursday
(at first on Fridays), is printed in a different form, and separately 1 Cadbury became chief owner of the paper. Mr E. T. Cook, who paged. In 1904 a “ Financial and Commercial Supplement " (at had shown brilliant ability as a publicist, but whose views on the first on Mondays, and later on Fridays) was added; in 1905 an Boer War were not shared by the new proprietor, retired, subseEngineering Supplement" (Wednesdays), and in 1910 a "Woman's quently joining the staff of the Daily Chronicle; the journal then Supplement."
became an organ of the anti-imperialist section of the Liberal party. The publishing department of The Times also invaded several Mr A. G. Gardiner became editor in 1902; and in 1904 considerable new fields of enterprise. The Times Atlas was first published in changes were made in the style of the paper, which was reduced in 1895, and this publication was supplemented by that of The Times price to a halfpenny. The influence of Mr Cadbury, and of the (previously Longmans') Gazetteer." A much larger amd more im group of Quaker families-largely associated with the manufacture portant venture was the issue in 1898 of a reprint
of the ninth of cocoa--who followed his example in promoting the publication edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica at less than half the original of Liberal and Free Trade newspapers, led in later years to somewhat price, on a new system of terms (known as The Times system) that violent attacks from political opponents on the so-called “ Cocoa enabled the purchaser to receive the whole work at once and to pay Press," with the Daily News at its head. for it by a series of equal monthly payments. This was followed by The first number of the Daily Telegraph was published on 29th a similar sale of the Century Dictionary and of a reprint of the first June 1855, as a twopenny newspaper: Its proprietor was Colonel fifty years of Punch : and eleven new volumes of the Encyclopaedia Sleigh. This gentleman soon found himself in pecuniary
“Daily Britannica, supplementing the ninth edition, and forming with it straits, and in satisfaction of the debt for the printing
Telethe tenth edition, were issued by The Times in 1902 on similar of the paper it was transferred to Mr Joseph Moses Levy terms (see ENCYCLOPAEDIA).
in the following September. On 17th September Mr Levy
graph." In 1895 The Times, through its Vienna correspondent, purchased published it as a four-paged penny journal, the first penny newspaper from Dr Moritz Busch the MS. and entire copyright of his journals, produced in London. His son, afterwards Sir Edward Lawson containing a very minute record of his intimate relations with (b. 1833), who was created Baron Burnham in 1904, immediately Bismarck. It was stipulated in the contract that these were not to entered the office, and after a short time became editor, a post be published until after the death of the prince. That event occurred which he only abandoned in 1885, when he became managing on the 30th
July 1898, and on the 12th September of the same year proprietor and sole director. From the outset Mr Levy gathered The Times published
through Messrs Macmillan (in 3 vols.) Bismarck: round him a staff of high literary skill and reputation. Among the Some Secrel Pages of his History, by Dr Moritz Busch.
first were Thornton Hunt, Geoffrey Prowse, George Hooper and Sir The Times History of the War in South Africa arose out of a desire Edwin Arnold. E. L. Blanchard was among the earliest of the to preserve in a more readable form the excellent work done by the dramatic critics, and Alexander Harper the City editor. Later numerous Times correspondents in South Africa. When originally there came George Augustus Sala (9.v.), then one of Charles Dickens's projected in the early days of 1900 it was hoped that the war would young men; Clement Scott (1841-1904), at one time a clerk in the be of short duration, and that the history of it could be rapidly com War Office; and Edward Dicey (b. 1832), then fresh from Cambridge. pleted. The length of the war naturally upset all these calculations, The Hon. Frank Lawley turned to journalism from official life; and and eventually, the sixth and last volume was only issued in 1909. among the most remarkable of the early contributors to the paper
For a long period after the establishment of The Times, no effort was . P. Benjamin, the great Anglo-American lawyer. H. 'D. to found a new daily London morning newspaper was ever con
Traill was a leader-writer for well-nigh a quarter of a century. spicuously successful. Among unfruitful attempts were-(1) the J. M. Le Sage (b. 1837), for many years the managing editor, began Nee Times, started by Dr (afterwards Sir John) Stoddart, upon his his connexion with the paper under Mr Levy. Others prominently departure from Printing House Square; (2) the Representative associated with the paper have been W. L. Courtney (b. 1850). (1824), established by John Murray, under circumstances which a distinguished man of letters who, after several years of work as seemed at the outset exceptionally promising: (3) the Constitutional, tutor at New College, Oxlord, joined the staff in 1890, and in 1894 begun in 1836 and carried on for eight months by a joint-stock also became editor of the Fortnightly Review ; E. B. Iwan-Müller company, exceptionally favoured in having for cditor and sub (d. 1910) and J. L. Garvin (from 1899), afterwards (1904) editor of editor Laman Blanchard and Thornton Hunt, with a staff of con the Observer. After 1890 Mr H. W.L. Lawson, Lord Burnham's eldest tributors which included Thackeray, Douglas Jerrold and Buiwer; son and heir, assisted his father in the general control of the paper. (4) the Morning Star, founded in 1856, and kept afloat until 1870, The Daily Telegraph may be said to have led the way in London when it was merged in the Daily News: (5) in 1867, the Day, for journalism in capturing a large and important reading-public from six weeks only: (6) in 1873 the Hour, for three ycars; (7) in 1878, the monopoly of The Times. It became the great organ of the the Daily Express, which soon failed.
middle classes, and was distinguished for its enterprise in many A measure of greater success followed the establishment (1794) fields. In June 1873 the Telegraph despatched George Smith to of the Morning Advertiser, under special circumstances. It was the carry out a series of archaeological researches in Nineveh, which
joint-stock venture of a large society of licensed victuallers, resulted in the discovery of the missing fragments of the cuneiform
amongst whom subscription to the paper was the condi- account of the Deluge, and many other inscriptions. In co-operation Ing Ad
tion of membership: For nearly sixty years its circulation with the New York Herald it equipped H. M. Stanley's second great vertiser.”
lay almost entirely in public-houses and coffee-houses, but expedition to Central Africa (1875-1877). Another geographical amongst them it sold nearly 5000 copies daily, and it yielded a steady feat with which the name of the Daily Telegraph is associated was profit of about [6000 a year. Then, by the ability and enterprise the exploration of Kilimanjaro (1884-1885) by Mr (afterwards Sir) of an experienced editor, James Grant (1802-1879), it was within Harry Johnston, whose account of his work appeared in the Daily four years raised to a circulation of nearly 8000, and to an aggregate Telegraph during 1885. And Mr Lionel Decle's march from the profit of £12,000 a year. In 1891 its price was reduced from three- Cape to Cairo, in 1899 and 1900, was also undertaken under the pence to a penny.
auspices of the paper. The Telegraph raised many large funds for The history of the Daily News, founded in 1846, has been told by public purposes. Almost the first was the subscription for the Mr Justin McCarthy and Sir John R. Robinson in a volume of relief of the sufferers by the cotton famine in Lancashire, in the
* political and social retrospect " published in 1896 on winter of 1862-1863; the fund in aid of the starving and impoverished **Dally
the occasion of its jubilee. It could boast of having people of Paris at the close of the siege in 1871; the prince of Wales's News."
continuously been the champion of Liberal ideas and Hospital Fund in commemoration of the Jubilee of 1897; and the principles of what (so long as Mr Gladstone lived) might be called Shilling Fund for the soldiers' widows and orphans in connexion official Liberalism at home and of liberty abroad. It became a with the Boer War. An undertaking of a more lestive kind was the penny paper in 1868. Its only rival in the history of Liberal journal. fête given to 30,000 London school children in Hyde Park on the ism in London for many years was the Morning Star, which in 1870 occasion of Queen Victoria's Jubilee in 1887 it absorbed. Notably, it led British public opinion in foreign affairs In politics the Daily Telegraph was consistently Liberal up to as champion of the North in the American Civil War, of the cause 1878, when it opposed Mr Gladstone's foreign policy as explained of Italy, of the emancipation of Bulgaria from the Turk and of in his Midlothian speeches. After 1886 it represented Unionist Armenia. Its early editors were Charles Dickens (21st January- opinions. Among special feats of which it can boast was the first March 1846), John Forster (March-October 1846), E. Ể. Crowe news brought to England of the conclusion of peace after the Franco(1847-1851), F. K. Hunt (1851-1854), W. Weir (1854-1858), T. German War. Walker (1858-1869). In 1868 the price was reduced to a penny, Prior to 1874 the Daily Telegraph was printed by eight- and tenand it came under the management of Mr (afterwards Sir) John R. feeder machines, through which every sheet had to be passed twice Robinson (1828-1903), who only retired in 1901. Its later editors to complete the impression. Under these conditions it was necessary included (1868-1886) Mr F. H. Hill (the brilliant author of Political to start printing one side of the paper as early as ten or eleven o'clock. Portraits), and subsequently Sir John Robinson, as managing The handicap which this imposed on the satisfactory production of editor, in conjunction with Mr P. W. Clayden (1827–1902), the a newspaper was removed by the introduction of Hoe's web
machines author of Life of Samuel Rogers, England under the Coalition and at the end of 1874. No further change took place until 1891, when other able works, as political and literary editor, down to 1896, they were superseded by others built by the same makers capable of and Mr E.T. Cook from 1896 to 1901. Mr Cook, during the negotia- printing a 12-page paper at the rate of about 24,000 an hour, cut, tions with the Boer government in 1899, strongly supported Sir folded, delivered and counted in quires. In 1896 they were modified Alfred Milner; and under him the Daily News, as an exponent of so as to be suitable for turning out an 8-, 10-, 12-, 14- or 16-page Lord Rosebery's Liberal Imperialism, gave no countenance to the paper. Up to 1894 the setting of type had been done entirely by pro-Boer views of some of the more active members of the Liberal hand, but in that year the linotype, after an experimental trial, was party. In 1901, however, the proprietary changed, and Mr George introduced on a large scale.
The Standard was established as an evening paper in the Tory | The Daily Chronicle arose, as alrcady mentioned, out of the local interest (as the express organ of the opponents of the measure for Clerkenwell News, the latter paper having been purchased by Me The
removing Roman Catholic disabilities) in 1827, its first Edward Lloyd in 1877, and converted into an Imperial
editor being Stanley Lees Giffard, father of the first earl morning paper" on independent Liberal lines. Under Standard.
Dally of Halsbury, who had Alaric Watts and Dr William the editorship of Mr R. Whelan Boyle the Daily Chronicle
Chronicle. Maginn, famous as one of the originators of Fraser's Magazine, as soon took rank among the other London daily journals, the only his chief helpers. In the course of two or three years it became a traces of its original character being shown in the attention paid to pecuniary, as it had from the first been a political, success, and metropolitan affairs and the appearance of numerous small advertisegradually ousted the Courier, which was for a time conducted by ments. The independent tone of the journal was conspicuous in its William Mudlord, whose son half a century later became the most treatment of the Home Rule question. At first deprecating the distinguished editor of the Standard. In course of time the latter system of combined agitation and outrage with which the term was became the property of Mr Charles Baldwin, whose father was synonymous, the Daily Chronicle, under the editorship of Mr A. E. proprietor of the Morning Herald, and when the father died the son Fletcher (1890-1895), ceased to be a Unionist journal, and supported found himself in possession of both a morning and an evening journal. Mr Gladstone's Bill of 1893. Another instance was afforded in the In his hands neither of them prospered, although the Standard course of the Boer War. During the negotiations and the early retained a large circulation and constantly printed carly and accurate stages of the campaign, the Daily Chronicle, which was then edited political information. At length, midway in the 'fifties, both papers by Mr H. W. Massingham (b. 1860), strove for peace by supporting were purchased by Mr James Johnstone, Mr John Maxwell, the pub- the Boer side against the diplomacy of Mr Chamberlain. Mi lisher, being for a time associated with him in the ownership. Mr Massingham's policy,
was, however, not to the liking of the proJohnstone realized that he had before him a great opportunity, and prietors, and he retired from the editorship towards the end of at once set to work to grasp it. He brought out the Standard as a 1899, Mr W. J. Fisher succeeding him as editor. In 1904 Mr Robert morning paper (29th June 1857), increased its size from four to eight Donald became editor, and the price was reduced to a hallpenny. pages, and reduced the price from fourpence to twopence. One of Mr Massingham during his cditorship, ably seconded by Mr (alterthe most curious features of the early numbers was a novel by wards Sir) Henry Norman (b. 1858), had largely increased the interest William Howard Russell. The evening edition was continued. In of the paper, particularly on its literary side. A new impetus had February 1858 Mr Johnstone again reduced the price, this time to been given in this direction in 1891, when a "literary page a penny. When that step was taken the Standard announced started, conducted at first by Mr J. A. Manson, and after 1892 by that its politics were "enlightened amelioration and progress," but Mr Massingham, when he became assistant-editor under Mr Fletcher. that it was bound to no party"; and to those independent lines The Chronicle had taken a leading part in many public movements it in the main adhered. In the course of four or five years it became since 1877. It was conspicuous in its advocacy of the cause of the a financial success, and then began to attract to itself many brilliant men in the London dock strike of 1889; and in the great mining pens, one of its contributors in the 'sixties, Lord Robert Cecil, dispute for a living wage," which was brought to a close by Lord being destined to become illustrious as marquess of Salisbury. Rosebery in November 1893, raised over £13,000 for the relics comLord Robert was an occasional leader-writer, whose contributionsmittees. Much attention was given to the theosophical discussion were confined almost entirely to political subjects. It was at this of 1891 and to the exposure of the adventurer De Rougemont time that the Standard laid the foundation of the great reputation after he had appeared before the British Association at Bristol in for carly and detailed foreign news which it has ever since enjoyed. 1898. The Chronicle took an active part in the negotiations which During the American Civil War it obtained the services of a repre: led to the Venezuelan Arbitration Treaty of 1897; it energetically sentative signing himself. Manhattan," whose vivid and forcible pleaded the cause of the Armenians and Cretans during the massacres letters from the battlefield arrested attention from the beginning of 1896, and it encouraged the Greeks in the war with Turkey in As the campaign progressed, these full, picturesque and accurate 1897. Its foreign policy was, however, more distinguished by goodaccounts of the most terrible struggle of modern times were looked will than by discretion-and notably in the latter instance. The for with eager interest. There were no “ special cables " to discount Chronicle also worked strenuously for the Progressive cause in London the poignant curiosity of the reader, and the paper reached a circu- in regard to the County Council, Borough Councils and the School lation far beyond anything hitherto known. The distinction thus Board. Its new successes included the first announcement of the acquired was maintained during the Prussian-Austrian War of 1866, revolution in eastern Rumelia (1885); the first circumstantial and greatly increased by the letters and telegrams describing the account of the death of Prince Rudolph (1889
Nansen's own triumphs and disasters of the campaign of 1870. In the early 'sixties narrative of his expedition towards the North Pole; Sir Martin the staff had been reinforced by the engagement of Mr William Conway's journey across Spitzbergen in 1896; and the first ascent Heseltine Mudford. In the midst of his work as a parliamentary of Aconcagua in 1897. reporter, he was sent as special correspondent to Jamaica in 1865 In 1890 the illustrated morning daily paper, the Daily Graphic, to report upon the troubles which involved the recall of Governor was founded by W. L. Thomas (1830-1901) as an offshoot Eyre; a further period in the gallery of the House of Commons from the weekly illustrated Graphic, and soon came into
Graphia followed, and in 1873 Mr Mudford became business manager. Mr favour. Johnstone's first editor was Captain Hamber, who afterwards In 1906 a new Liberal morning daily was started by Mr Franklin seceded to the short-lived Hour, with whom had been associated Thomason in the shape of the Tribune, edited by Mr W. Hill, who Mr David Morier Evans as manager. He was succeeded by the retired after a few months, with Mr L. T. Hobhouse as
Tilbude. owner's oldest son, to whom Mr (afterwards Sir) John Gorst was political editor. Later Mr Pryor became managing joined in a consultative capacity." In 1876 Mr Mudford became editor, but at the beginning of 1908, after heavy losses, the publication editor, still, however, retaining managerial control. Mr Johnstone, was stopped, the proprietor to whose energy and perspicacity the paper owed so Two morning papers, as the popular price of halspenny, appeared much, died in 1878, and under his will Mr Mudford was appointed in the spring of 1892, the Morning and the Morning Leader. They editor and manager for life, or until resignation. Already great raced for priority of publication, the former winning by
Morolog property, the Standard in Mr Mudford's hands entered upon a a day. The Morning Leader, under the same manage
Leader, successful period. He had for his first assistant-editor Mr Gilbert ment as the (evening) Stay, continued to flourish, but the Venables, who was succeeded after a short term by Mr George Morning had but a brief career. Byron Curtis, previously one of the leader-writers, who thus held the The halfpenny Daily Mail was originated by Mr Alfred Charles position through nearly the whole of Mr Mudford's long editorship. Harmsworth (b. 1865), who was subsequently created a baronet The staff at this time comprised many men, and some women, (1904) and in 1905 a peer as Baron Northcliffe; it appeared
Dally whose names are distinguished in letters as well as in journalism. in 1896, on the same day as Sir G. Newnes's penny Courier
Mall. Mr Alfred Austin, Mr T. H. S. Escott, Miss Frances Power Cobbe (which only lasted a few weeks). In theevolution of English and Professor Palmer were all writing for the paper at the same time. journalism the foundation of the Daily Mail carried still farther the To them must be added, among others, Mr E. D. J. Wilson, the work begun by the Daily Telegraph in carlier days. It was the first brilliant political leader-writer (alterwards of The Times), Mr Percy hallpenny morning newspaper to place at the disposal of its readers Greg, son of “Cassandra " Greg. Mr T. E. Kebbel and Dr Robert a news service competing with that of any of the higher-priced Brown, who wrote copiously upon scientific and miscellaneous newspapers, and soon took an increasingly important place in the subjects. Foremost among the war correspondents were Mr G. A. Press. At the opening of the 20th century it claimed a regular Henty, who represented the paper on many a stricken field; Mr John circulation of about a million copies daily (and had occasionally A. Cameron, who was killed at Abu Klca; and Mr William Maxwell. sold as many as 1,500,000 copies of a single issue), and it was proIn January 1900 Mr Mudford retired, and was succeeded in the editor. duced simultaneously in London and Manchester, the whole of the ship by Mr G. Byron Curtis (d. 1907), Mr S. H. Jeyes, whose con contents being telegraphed nightly. In May 1904 it began publish. nexion with the paper had begun in 1891, becoming assistant-editor. ing a continental edition in Paris. The sensational success of the In November 1904 the Standard, which had at that time taken rather | Daily Mail, which first made Lord Northcliffe one of the dominant a strong line in deprecating the tariff reform movement within the personalities in English journalism, was due, not to individual Unionist party, was sold to Mr C. Arthur Pearson (proprietor of the writers, þut to a consistent policy of catering for a modern public Daily Express, see below), who was chairman of the Tariff Reform League, and considerable changes were made in the paper, Mr H. A. of interest. Its large circulation, and resulting advertising revenue. Gwynne becoming editor. In 1910 Mr Pearson, owing to ill-health, gave it an influence which in politics was used on the Unionist side; transferred his interests in the proprietary company he had formed but the readers of the Daily Mail went to it, not for politics, but for in 1904 to Mr Davison Dalziel.
news, brightly and briefly displayed. Its triumph represented the
success of a business organization, in which individual views on affairs it into a Liberal journal. Mr Greenwood then retired from the played a comparatively minor part.
editorship and shortly afterwards started the St James's Gazelle The halfpenny Daily Express, founded by Mr Cyril Arthur Pearson Mr John (afterwards Viscount) Morley became editor of the Pali (b. 1866) on the lines of the Daily Mail, first appeared in 1900, and Mall, with Mr W. T. Stead (b. 1849) as assistant-editor. The price Dally
soon won a large clientèle. With R. D. Blumenfeld as was reduced in 1882 to one penny. Many of the old contributors Express.
editor (from 1904) it worked strenuously for Tariff Reform. remained, and they were reinforced by Robert Louis Stevenson,
The Daily Mirror, started by Mr Harmsworth as a who wrote some “ Letters from Davos," Professor Tyndall, Professor women's peany daily in 1904, failed to attract in its original form Freeman, James Payn and Mrs Humphry Ward. When Mr Morley and was quickly changed into a halfpenny general daily, relying as exchanged journalism for politics in 1883. he was succeeded by Mr Dally
a novelty on the presentation of news by photographic W. T. Stead (9.v.), with Mr Alfred Milner, afterwards Lord Milner,
pictures of current events. This new feature soon ob- as his assistant. “Adopting an adventurous policy, Mr Stead imMirror.
tained for it a large circulation under the enterprising ported the interview" from America, and a report of General management of Mr Kennedy Jones (b. 1865), who was already known Gordon's opinion was believed to have been the cause of his ill-fated for his successful conduct of the Evening News and his share in the mission to Khartum. A series of articles called "The Truth about business of the Daily Mail.
the Navy" (1884) had considerable influence in causing the AdThe Globe (sounded Jan. Ist., 1803), the oldest of existing London miralty to lay down more ships next year. But Mr Stead's career evening papers, owed its origin to the desire of the booksellers or as the editor came to an end in 1889, in consequence of his publishing Globa
publishers of the day for an advertising medium, at a a series of articles called "The Maiden Tribute of Modern Babylon,
inoment when the Morning Post gave them the cold purporting to further the Criminal Law Amendment Bill Mr shoulder.,
A syndicate of publishers started a morning paper, Stead had made a feature of reprints called " extras "; and, edited the British Press (which had only a short career), to combat the by Mr Charles Morley, the Pall Mall Budget became an illustrated Pest, and the Globe as a rival to the Courier (see above), which, like weekly. Mr Stead was replaced in 1889 by E. T. Cook, who had the Post, was under Daniel Stuart's control. George Lane, previously become assistant-editor in succession to Milner. The Pall Mall Stuart's chief assistant, was the editor. From 1815 a prominent Gazette was now steadily Liberal and a strong advocate of Irish meraber of the staff was Mr (afterwards vice-chancellor Sir James) Home Rule. On its staff were Edmund Garrett (a gifted writer who Bacon. After swallowing up some other journals, in 1823 it absorbed became editor of the Cape Times in South Africa, and died prethe property and title of the Traveller, controlled by Colonel Torrens, maturely in 1907), F.C. Gould the caricaturist, and J. Alfred Spender who in the reorganization became principal proprietor and brought (b. 1862). Mr Cook resigned in 1892, on the sale of the paper to Mr over Walter Coulson as the editor. "John Wilson succeeded as editor William Waldorf Astor, the American millionaire, who turned it in 1834, efficiently seconded by Mr Moran; Thomas Love Peacock again into a Conservative organ, and also changed its shape, abandonand R. H. Barham (“ Ingoldsby.") being famous contributors ing the old small pages for a larger sheet; and he and his assistant during his regime. For some time the Globe was the principal Whig Mr Spender continued the Liberalism of the Pall Mall in the Westorgan, and Mr (afterwards Deputy Judge Advocate Sir James) minster Gazette (see below). Mr Henry Cust, M.P., was appointed O'Dowd its political inspirer. Mahony ("" Father Prout ") was its editor, with Mr E. B. Iwan-Müller as assistant-editor, Mr Cust Paris correspondent. In 1842 the Courier was incorporated, but a (b. 1861), who was Lord Brownlow's heir, and came fresh to editorship gradual decline in the fortunes of the paper, and Colonel Torrens's with enthusiasms acquired from his experiences in parliament and death in 1864, brought about a reorganization in 1866, when a small in society, made the columns of the Pall Mall very lively for the Conservative syndicate, including Sir Stafford Northcote, bought it next couple of years. It became well known for its "booms," and and converted the Globe into a Conservative organ. In 1868 the its “smartness generally. Some papers contributed to it by pink colour since associated with the paper was started. In 1869 Sir Charles Dilke and Mr Spenser Wilkinson resulted in the establishits price (originally sixpence) was lowered to a penny. Mr W. T.ment of the Navy League in 1894. The paper had, too, the first Madge (b. 1845), whose vigorous management was afterwards so news of Mr Gladstone's resignation and the appointment of Lord valuable, and who in 1881 started with Captain Armstrong the Rosebery to succeed him. But though the Pall Mall under Mr Cust People, a popular Sunday journal for the masses, joined the paper had outshone all its competitors, its independence of those business in 1866; and after brief periods of editorship by Messrs Westcomb, considerations which ultimately appeal to most proprietors hardly R. H. Patterson, H. N. Barnett and Marwood Tucker (1868), in represented a durable state of affairs; and eventually the relations 1871 Captain George C. H. Armstrong (1836-1907), who in 1892 between proprietor and editor became strained. In February 1896 was created a baronet, 'was put in control; he edited the paper for Mr Cust' and Mr Iwan-Müller were succeeded respectively by Sir some years, and then it became his property. The editorial chair Douglas Straight and Mr Lloyd Sanders, the latter of whom retired was filled in succession by Mr Ponsonby Ogle, Mr Algernon Locker in 1902. Sir Douglas Straight (b. 1844) had been in early days a (1891), and the proprietor's son and heir Lieut. G. E. Armstrong, well-known London barrister, and from 1879 to 1892 was a judge in R.N. (1895), until in June 1907, after Sir G. Armstrong's death, the India. Sir Douglas Straight remained editor till the end of 1908, naper was sold to Mr Hildebrand Harmsworth. The Globe “ Turn- when he was succeeded by Mr Higginbottom.
(miscellaneous articles, turning over from the first to the Founded in 1880 by Mr H. Hucks Gibbs (afterwards Lord Alden. second page) began in 1871, and became famous for variety and ham), for Mr Frederick Greenwood to edit when he had left the humour. The jocular" By the Way "column, another characteristic Pall Mall, the S! James's Gazelle represented the more
The St feature, was started in 1881, and owed much to Mr Kay Robinson intellectual and literary side of Tory journalism in op
James's and Mr C. L. Graves. In the history of the Globe one of the best position to the new Liberalism of Mr Greenwood's former
Qazette. known incidents is its publication of the Salisbury-Schuvaloff organ; it was in fact meant
to carry on the idea of the treaty of 1878. It was the first London daily to use the linotype original Pall Mall as Mr Greenwood had conceived it, and was composing-machine (1892).
(like it) more of a daily review than a chronicle of news. In 1888 A new period of evening journalism, characteristic of the later the paper having then been sold to Mr E. Steinkopff, Mr Greenwood 19th century, opened with the founding of the Pall Mall Gazette. retired and was succeeded as editor (1888-1897), by Mr Sidney Low,
The first number (at twopence) was issued on 7th February subsequently author of The Governance of England and other able 1865 from Salisbury Street, Strand. Mr George Smith, works, who had as his chief assistant-editors Mr S. H. Jeyes (till
of the publishing firm of Smith and Elder, was its first 1891), and Mr Hugh Chisholm(1892–1897),the latter succeeding himas proprietor; Mr Frederick Greenwood (q.v.), its first editor, took the editor (1897–1900). In those days mere news was not considered Anti-Jacobin for his model; the paper was intended to realize the important feature; or rather, original and sagacious views were Thackeray's picture (in Pondennis) of one " written by gentlemen for identified with a sort of novelty such a paper could best promulgate. gentlemen. Its political attitude was to be independent, and The Si James's was for many years conspicuous for its literary much space was to be given to literature and non-political matter. character, and for the number of distinguished literary men who It had brilliant supporters, such as Sir J. Fitzjames Stephen as writer wrote for it, some of whom first became known to the public by of leading articles (replaced to a certain extent, after 1869, by Sir means of its columns. Its interest in newspaper history is really Henry Maine), R. H. Hutton, Matthew James Higgins (" Jacob that of a paper which appealed to and influenced a comparatively Omnium"), James Hannay, and George Henry Lewes, with George small circle of cultured readers, a " superior " function more and Eliot, Anthony Trollope, Charles Reade, and Thomas Hughes as occa more difficult to reconcile with business considerations. It was sional contributors; but the paper failed to attract the general public one of the earliest supporters of the Imperialist movement, and until, in the following year, Mr Greenwood's brother, James, furnished between 1895 and 1899 was the chief advocate in the Press of it with three articles on "A Night in a Workhouse: by an Amateur resistance to the foreign bounties on sugar which were ruining the Casual." A morning edition had already been tried and dropped, West Indies, thus giving an early impetus to the movement for and so was a distinct morning paper attempted in 1870. In 1867 Tariff Reform and Colonial Preference. During the years immedinew premises were taken in Northumberland Street, Strand. Three ately following 1892, when the Pall Mall Gazette again became years later the Pall Mall Gazette was the first to announce the sur-Conservative, the competition between Conservative evening papers render of Napoleon III. at Sedan. Matthew Arnold contributed his became acute, because the Globe and Evening Standard were also famous “ Arminius " letters ("* Friendship's Garland ") in 1871, and penny Conservative journals; and it was increasingly difficult to Richard Jefferies contributed "The Gamekeeper at Home" in 1876 carry on the St James's on its old lines so as to secure a profit to the and onwards. Mr Greenwood made the paper unflinchingly Con proprietor; by degrees modifications were made in the general servative and strongly adherent to Lord 'Beaconsfield's foreign character of the paper, with a view to its containing more news policy. In 1880, however, Mr Smith handed over the Pall Mall and less purely literary matter. But it retained its original shape; Gazette to his son-in-law, Mr Henry Yates Thompson, who turned with sixteen (after 1897. twenty) small pages, a form which the XLX 10
Pall Mall Gazette,