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attentions to M. Say. It is doubtless, We have looked over this little voas Milton says, “ of greatest concern- lume, to see that there be “no offence ment to have a vigilant eye how bookes in't.” It is something in the style of demeane themselves as well as men. Bruyere and Rochefoucauld, but conFor bookes are not absolutely dead sists rather of remarks on tastes, manthings, but doe contain a potencie of ners, and opinions, than of aphorisms life in them, to be as active as that tending to a system of human action, soule was, whose progeny they are; like Rochefoucauld,-or sketches of a Ray, they do preserve, as in a violl
, the period, and a place, and a brilliant purest efficacie and extraction of the circle of ambition, wit, and devotion, living intellect that bred them.” In like Bruyere. Bruyere had lived much the case of a writer like M. Say, all about a court, and was therefore very this applies forcibly, not only from minute and circumstantial in his delia the intrinsic reason of the thing, but neations of charaeter. He knew auri. because of the influence which a justly cular confession, and had caught from great name like his may be supposed it the spirit of a prying power and a to exert over those who read, not too indulgent allowance. He was caustic merely that their fancies may be and fault-finding, even to personality, tickled with light reading, but that in his discriminations. Rochefoucauld they may receive an excitement to had neither patience for those who deep thought from the speculations of were to understand him, nor interest a solid understanding like his, con- enough in mankind, generally, to veyed in an attractive yet unpre- waste many words on them. He was tending form. Before the appearance therefore condensed, enigmatical, seof his beautiful and profound Sys- vere, and not unfrequently even mystic tem of Political Economy had made cal. M. Say is a man of science and of him famous all over Europe, he was the world, full of the light of modern known to the literati of France by a ideas, and much accustomed to see small work, entitled, Olbia, or an things that had been considered as Essay on the Ways of improving the most stable turn round on their axes Manners of a Nation. It however and assume new complexions. But, had more interest as the initiatory for all that, he has more of the inesthesis of an ingenious, speculative, and timable quality of moral admiration highly infermed mind, than from any than either of his predecessors. His thing actually done in it. M. Say observation may possibly not have was then (in the eighth year of the been so keen as theirs; but it has republic) a member of the notorious been better-for society is better : and Tribunate ; and that tract may be if he be not so witty as they, nor have considered as his mite to the reform such an exclusive power over his inawhich was at that time the chief end terials, there is, beyond all doubt, a held in view by almost all the spe- great appearance of good faith about culative spirits in France. He was lat. him. His sense is not only excellent, terly known, rather disadvantageously, but it is practical. It is not ascetic. among ourselves, as the author of a It does not smell of the cloister. It pamphlet On England and the English, is in the manner of one who cannot which dealt mainly with our mistakes help sporting ideas, because he is so and einbarassments. In that tract, his intellectual that he cannot be without objections against our moral and poli- them. If they do not produce their tical systems have been flippantly, but effect simply, he is quite convinced rather closely, summed up by NIr Hob- that no singularity of enunciation house. “ His complaint or pity was could make them more valuable to chiefly directed towards us, because him, or more useful to others. we had given a pension to the family Whether, after having experienced of Nelson, an admiral killed in battle; more than Grecian suffering from the because there were no workmen des great evils with which these times currës to be seen in cur ceffeehouses ; abound, there be something of relief because the studies at Oxford were in the very title of a little book, we un peu Gothiques, and books were get- cannot possibly determine just now. ting so dear that few could read; be- But it is clear, at any rate, that there muse there were no people in Great is a great temptation to like, as well Britain idle by profession; and, lastly, as to say, wise, and witty, and agreebecause we drank bad port.”
able things, in the aphorismatic shape,
even though, for the sake of shortness, the main point is, to see things independthey are so divested of breadth and ently of calculation ; not such as we wish explanation as to expose them to be them, but such as they really are,-in momistaken for truisms. This enigma- rals as in physics. Calculate afterwards, or tical way of giving shape to an adven
reason upon it, if that pleases you. You turous thought or a smart observa- may again deceive yourself, but you will
not begin by deceiving. tion, possesses attractions for those who love the agreeable mystification “ Moral philosophers seem to believe which there is in venting a moral that selfishness and interest direct action truth by way of antithesis. The exer- more than self-conceit or vanity. I believe, tion and the pleasure too consist in on the contrary, that vanity has more influso much trouble in the apprehension stances men act, through vanity, in a mancouching it in such terms as cost just ence, generally speaking, than selfishness.
It is enough to observe in how many inas to make it pass at least for wisdom, ner opposite to their interests; from the under the guise of a painfully and child, vexed by contradiction until he rewell-chosen contrast. There is fully fuses his victuals, to the sovereign prince, more pleasure and almost as much made to enact so many follies by dint of utility, in hunting for the thought in flattery, who sacrifices a country: (I mean this way, and adjusting its relations the groundwork of his power) to avenge an in that glancing and rapid manner
insult in the gazette. which it incites, as there is in the possession. One great beauty, too, is,
“ A translator,, to understand the lan
guage that the thought is expressed, and the delicacy and beauties. How can he give an
which he explains, ought to feel its idea hit off, without any after trouble equivalent for a beauty which he does not of trimming or garnishing. The mode perceive? He ought to write well in his speaks to our fancy ; the thing makes own language, that he may be able even a frank demand on our judgment; to read. He ought also to have a flexible and, though it may sometimes ask too turn for taking forms analogous to those much, yet we are under no pain in of his model, and to know when it is necesdenying it; and, having set it down sary to replace expressions, ideas, images, as either incomprehensible or ineffec- by others conformable to tie genius of his
language, and which shall excite in the tive, may pass on to the next. But minds of his readers sentiments similar to M. Say's views must be seen.
those which the original author has raised “ The author who is a man of the world in his.-After all this, are you surprised and a good fellow is rarely known to poste- that good translations are so rare? rity. Does he want knowledge, or mind, or talent ? No, certainly; but the centre of “ The cause of several revolutions has his combinations is the taste of his circle, sprung from the finances, commencing with which he wants to please. Observe, that it that of the United States, which is dated is the same thing where the author is a man from the duty on tea. So will others come of merit, and his private society remarkable again. Well, what do you conclude? Shew for genius and information. Private inte- us a way of preventing them! The way is rests, attachments and opinions of the mo- simple, -it is evident, but I don't mean to ment, are what each of its members has point it out. Why so ? For there is nothing constantly an eye to, and to which he can- so foolish as to give to all the world a piece not help attaching more importance than of advice which nobody will follow. What they are deserving of.
The world goes
then ? Take it; one word will do the busiround ; the present generation disappears; ness. WHAT WE CANNOT PRODUCER other interests, new connexions, succeed to WITHOUT TROUBLE, DO NOT LET US the former.-See what an immense ad.
Add some accessories vantage the retired author possesses! He to that. Change the scene whenever you has not received a glance merely moment, please ; give names to the personages; proary: he has observed in morals, and de- pose the intrigues ; and, -the winding up scribed in physics, those natural relations will be always the same. which never change, but always interest.
“ In order to persuade in conversation, it “ Observe the mathematician: he never makes a bad calculation, nor ever forms a * “ If any one asks from me an explicajust idea. He always pushes his ideas to tion of the words produce and consume, I their rigorous consequences, from a false shall be obliged to refer to a small definition, principle. He calculates fairly upon erro. in two volumes, under the title of a Treatise neous observations. Geometry only yields on Political Economy; or, a simple Expomatter for calculation; and the qualities of sition of the Manner in which Riches are the observer are by no means the same as PRODUCED, DISTRIBUTED, and conthose of the calculator. To arrive at truth, SUMED."
SPEND ON FOLLY.
is not necessary to effect a co-ordination of merous virtues, as well as faculties, ideas,-to establish a connected and gradu. we wish we could adequately display. ated system,—which is the highest effort of We beg leave to say a few words on written eloquence. Pay more attention to what seem to be the distinctive points the persons you address than to the subject of their character as men of letters and Draw your argument from the opinions of
sentiment. the person spoken to, even allowing it to be done by sophisms. The persuasion to be ef
They are all cool-headed men, with fected is only a mode of perceiving. Con- little imagination, and no great quickversation requires this artifice, in as much ness of apprehension,—but so clear in as we have to do with contracted minds, the ideas which they receive, that they with personal feelings,- with prejudices. never lose sight of them if they think In writing it is otherwise. You must ex
them worth retaining,-nor mistake press yourself in the best language you can
one of their relations when they come get. You must be clear and candid too, for you have the impartial public for a judge, attached to knowledge, and submit to
to apply them. They are uniformly and posterity, which is yet more impartial.
such labour in its pursuit as to appear “ Men are made of the same stuff,--but to like it in most instances merely for their nature manifests itself in different ways. its own sake. They would study on, The vanity of the savage consists in shewing if it were for nothing else than the his figure, and in having his body well gratification of a vigorous and endurdaubed with uneraseable spots,--with fine ing propensity to mental exercise, plumes on his head. The vanity of the which acts with a springiness and efItalian is manifested in wearing, if he is fect, that read hard lessons to the imaable, laces on the same parts. The vanity of the Englishman and the Turk lies in not ginative men of fine taste and quick compromising their national dignity, in feelings, who have in youth cultivated wrapping themselves up in defiance and their moral affections more than their gravity,
and, above all, in never permit- intellectual faculties. They are emiting you to believe that you can be of use nently calculated to excel in the accuto them, or instruct or amuse them. They rate sciences. They are more actuatspeak, as well as think, ill of foreigners; ed, in their exertions and inquiries, always inferior to that which is found among fined ambition, which, although it be and that which is valued by foreigners, is by ideas of utility, than by that undethemselves,-disdainful silence, large strides, and a supercilious inattention to what is often of the unproductive kind, lingers, passing under their eyes. The vanity of with the last remains of their scholasthe French is not so exclusive. Without tic enthusiasm, about men of a literaseeking to humiliate others, they love to dis- ry turn, even to a pretty late period of play the advantages they have, and some life. In short, every thing that they times even those which they have not; and say, or think, or do, bears about it eviif convicted of boasting, they laugh anong dent marks of “ the first, provided you do not affect to hum appropriate intellectual aptitude, and
appropriate probity, ble them. Render justice to their bravery, and all will be forgiven.
appropriate active talent."
They are greatly more improveable “ An Indian meeting with a Bramin, than men of fancy and feeling, -and asked him, what is it that supports the without seeming to be elated, or conworld Ignorant fellow! where do you scious of any internal excitement, come from? it is un elephant! The arro. make progresses in taste, as well as gance of philosophy has left you in uncer. on the boundless road of mere knowiinty; and I tell you truth at once. And ledge, which would astonish any one the other thanked him, as if he had receive who observes narrowly and compares ed a benefit."
attentively. These may suffice as specimens of Such is the influence of a well bal. the spirit and execution of this Little anced self-possession, even on the mere Book. Any person who may take it forms of expression, that they someup will find much to amuse and in- times snatch, by chance as it were, terest, and nothing to fatigue or dis- grace beyond the reach of art.” The gust him. Those who are of a re- charm of unexpectedness thus producHecting and speculative turn can get, ed, when we join to it the full and in some of its remarks on life, man- easy sequence of their ideas, enables ners, and literature, enough to excite them, as they already are the heartiest them to very serious thought. M. Say of writers, to become, on occasions, belongs to a class of men for whom without appearing even to attempt it; we have great esteem, and whose nu- the most pleasing also. They are far
from being enemies to pleasantry. thus set free, and they can do a great They rather seem to relish jokes with deal more in the way of judgment than a zest, which would be astonishing, if men with wayward imaginations and one did not recollect that the cause of fancies, which are too often coming this probably is, that their habits of thick on them, with teazing distrusts close application leave the mind in of their capacities, and perplexing essuch a state as to be more open to any timates of occasions. Their works are thing smart or ridiculous, which comes not composed with that eager haste easily and rapidly across it. Their which characterizes men of sanguine pleasantry however has little of the temperaments. Their opinions are not manner of the world about it. They expressed with that ardency, or warmth, have more humour than wit. As their or provoking amour propre, which athumorous sallies partake rather of the taches to the opinions of men of more nature of recreations than of exertions, sensitive natures. They know very well they are but little fastidious about the that opinions which are to last are not channel. Minds which have been personal but general. Of course, they braced up by vigorous habits of exer- would never think of propagating betion, have also a greater spring and lief by fire and sword.But they go force in their merriment than minds farther than this, and a step farther of mere sensibility or refinement. The than many of the best hearts can go; authors of whom we speak are not for they never attempt to cram down a likely to be nice of risking, in their sentiment or a dogma, by a bustling convivial eloquence, a few fescerine* vigour, in the circle of their immedifreedoms and lax figures of conception. ate influence. They do not love the They never apparently give way to spectacle of a muscular man, strongly that vain and delusive stinginess and agitated with the fervour of belief, ensensitive caution which, after a few forcing or maintaining it to the inconyears of confident hopings and unre- venience of the nervous systems which served trustings, men of feeling and are nearest to him. All this is, befancy are forced to adopt in self-de- cause the empire of judgment is comfence. They have always suffered less plete in them. from ridicule, too, than these men,- Thus we find the beautiful, the uniand live, therefore, less habitually un- versal, though humbling principle of der the fear of that grinding scourge. compensation asserted through all the They can also afford to be more can- various chances that make up the sum did then vehement and fanciful men. of moral existence, and modify the acThey have not expected more from tion of physical causes. The man of the world than the world can at any fancy is checked in his fine bursts of time give,—and have thus, perhaps, conception by shortcomings of judgfewer generous errors to regret than ment. The cool-headed thinker is the others. But, at all events, their rewarded for his comparative passivedoctrine of utility has taught them to ness of existence, by fullness of coneconomise the exertions of intercourse: viction, and the delights of completeand directness of purpose is held with ness and simplicity of view. them to infer directness of means. From all this, it must not be inferTheir vigour is not wasted by the fires red that the men of whom we have of eloquence ; nor is their attention been speaking are destitute of the distracted by a nice regard to the more finer affections, or wanting in that delicately poised beauties of expression. indescribable kindliness of nature, for While it is a peculiar feature of their which, in English, there is no other character that they always know how word than the emphatic and expressive far, and for how much, they can draw monosyllable-heart. On the contraon their knowledge, they gain an ad- ry, those of them that we know have ditional power and vantage-ground, by had natures admirably turned to friendbeing enabled to adjust their means ship. If they were not cold as friends, and their faculties. Their powers are
neither were they cold as patriots.
We have uniformly found among “ Fescennina per hunc invecta licentia them that settled love of civil liberty,
which the best minds are most apt to Versibus alternis opprobria rustica fuit,
venerate as the result of conviction, Libertasque recurrentis accepta per annos
and to love as the product of taste. Lusit amabiliter." Horal. Ep. ad August. This too, was the more valuable, as
it seemed to flow from a deliberate in- Reformed Church of Geneva, and its duction of solid thought,-pot from adoption by that of England; as well any dreams of perfectibility, but from as to make a slight mention of the the belief that, taking human nature versions that were first appointed for as it is, under all the checks and dis- their use. Scotland received the form advantages which prevent it from get- and substance of her entire service ting fair play, it can never be respect- from the one; and to the other she able, except where civil liberty is well stands indebted for the version which understood.
long constituted the basis of this deBut we must have a summing-up lightful portion of divine worship. with the author, of whom it is our The singular fact has often been remore immediate business to speak per- marked, of the Protestants owing the sonally.
use of the Psalmody to a body of men M. Say is as correct and learned as from whom they least might have exa German compiler; and while he has pected such an obligation. Clement that force and precision which distin- Alarot is usually styled the Prince of guish the thinkers of our own country, the Poets of France, or, to use other with as much directness and honesty of words (the commencement of the epiintention as the best of them, he has yet taph which was on his tomb), “ Icy a portion of the gayety and graceful- gist des François le Virgile et l'Honess of his illustrious countrymen, who mere.” He certainly deserves to rank wrote during the old monarchy, before high in the class of Ancient French a republic and the struggles of military Poets, and is the oldest of them whose ambition had, with the occasional sa- works can be read with pleasure. Afcrifice of these qualities, given force, ter a long residence in the Court of veheinence, and restlessness, to the France, where his life had been spent tone of French literature. There cer- in the greatest profligacy, he comtainly must be something in the opi- menced a translation of the Psalms nion so current among the continental into French verse. This was towards literati, that the French is, above all the close of 1536, and in 1539 he pubother languages, the one most suited lished thirty (not the first thirty, as for elegant criticism and subjects of they stand in the regular order, as has the belles lettres. And this little vo- been said, but merely thirty in point lame is another reason with us, for a de- of number) of the Psalms, which he ference to established opinions, which, dedicated to Francis I., bearing the in matters of taste at least, we are but sanction of the Sorbonne, that they little disposed to concede to them. contained nothing contrary to sound
doctrine. The reception they met
with was favourable in the highest METRICAL VERSIONS OF THE PSALMS. degree,—they eclipsed the brilliancy
of his madrigals and sonnets,-and The Psalmody has always formed an repeated editions were called for; Essential part of the sacred service in while they were sung in public and the Protestant Church. In the follow- in private with the most rapturous ing paper, we mean neither to enter delight.* They certainly received at upon the peculiar nature of these Lyric that time an undue share of praise and Hymns-to discuss the various me
admiration. From his own testimony thods in which this portion of devo- it appears he was encouraged to comtional worship is performed-or to plete the versification of the whole, by enunerate the almost innumerable at
the king himself. tempts, in Protestant countries, to furnish appropriate translations for the Puis que voulez, que ie poursuivre ô sire, different churches. All that we intend, L'oeuvre Royal du Psaultier commencé, &c. is to give a summary and collected view of what can now be ascertained respect
• Hawkins's History of Music, vol. 3. ; ing the Psalmody, in so far as its his. and Warton's History of English Poetry, tory relates to Scotland ;-of its first vol. 3.Hawkins, in particular, gives a reintroduction at the Reformation :-and markable account of the enthusiasm which
The soine account of the versions that have king, and each of his courtiers, chose one,
they excited in the French court. since been in use. Before this can be which they delighted to sing as their fadone, however, it is necessary to con- vourite air. Before this, they had been ą. sider its primary introduction into the dapted to suitable melodies.