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"that I have been the enemy of Bajazet ;. I am J*°•I*?3» "even disposed to be a father to his children. Hes- 8o

1 to 809.

"provided they expect from their conqueror xm/—** "the effects of my clemency. My first contc quests are sufficient for me, and I am not "tempted by the caresses of an inconstant for"tune."

We have said that Solyman was given to de- Soiyman bauchery, particularly to wine, so much abhorred Tamwhne by the Mussulmen. He had drunk to excess of who5 al/' this dangerous liquor, when he received 1-amer- ^"aomilane's letter. Being become audacious, he had "ween the the boldness to return him a haughty answer. estsonT"8" Tamerlane punished it, only by conferring on Musa, Bajazet's second son, the title of sovereign, which he had at first intended for the eldest. "Receive," said he to him in a letter, '« the "heritage of thy father. A soul truly noble "knows how to conquer kingdoms and how to "restore them." Tamerlane, after having re- established all the Mussulman princes that Bajazet had dethroned, returned to his Tartarian dominions, without reserving to himself a single conquest. He had made Mahomet, the youngest of Bajazet's sons, prince of Amasia; but this conqueror did not leave the two youngest of his prisoner's sons a sufficient force to oblige the eldest to observe the dispositions made in their favor.

Solyman having learned that his brother Musa considered himself sultan, passed the straits of

I - . Gallipoli.

j.c. 1403, Gallipoli. This prince, all vicious as he was, Heg.805, na(j valour and talents for war; he marched

to 809.

*—.v—* straight to Bursa. Musa, who had not expected Soiyman sucn a sudden attack, had not had time to pre»

disputes *

the sove- pare troops to receive him; he fled to Cogni to

reigntiesof r r . 1

his bro- Caraman Ogli, to save himself from his brother's


resentment. Soiyman fixed himself at Bursa as . lawful sovereign, and sent orders to the different governors, called sangiacs, to endeavour to recover the provinces near their governments* which Tamerlane had divided from the Ottoman crown. He would not undertake any thing in person against the princes that his father had formerly vanquished, as the repeated attempts of Musa required constant attention. This fugitive sovereign had found at Cogni, only an asylum; he wanted assistance. He went and asked it of the emir of Castamona, hoping that this prince, who, like himself, owed his re-establishmeat to Tamerlane, would defend the work of his benefactor. But this emir, still less willing to help than Caraman Ogli, forbade the Turkish prince to enter his dominions, for fear of giving offence to his brother. On this refusal, Musa embarked in a small vessel, which he found near Nice, flattering himself he should be more fortunate in Europe. Soiyman, elated with this success, formed a close alliance with the prince of Castamona, and returned to Bursa, where he resigned himself to drunkenness. The only way to make

court court to him was to flatter his vices. One may J-c - 1403.

to 1406.

iudere with what indignation the real Maho- Hes- tos>

, i to 809.

metans, who were then very numerous, saw *—v—' their law so openly transgressed. Solyman imprudently affronted Mahomet, prince of Amasia, his youngest brother, by answering the ambassadors which this prince had sent to pay him homage, that his subjects had no right to treat with him as sovereigns. He chased away, rather than dismissed, these ambassadors, whom he would never acknowledge; he would have marched against the usurper of Amasia, as he called him, if his brother Musa had not cut out more serious work for him in Europe. v t

This prince had in fact taken advantage of the supineness of his enemy, and of all the time that the latter had lost. Solyman, by his debaucheries, had lost the affection of all his officers. Musa appeared in the eyes of these malecontents the avenger of their transgressed Jaw; this prince, with a corps of Walachians, which he had assembled, had no difficulty to make himself master of Adrianople, and to get himself declared sultan there; but he remained in that place, only whilst his brother was raising an army and crossing the straits of Gallipoli. Musa had no regular troops; he left Adrianople, of which he filled himself the sovereign, and fled into Walachia, leaving to Solyman the care of destroying himself. This elder brother, become

I 2 the

j.c.1403, t^g horror of every man of virtue, was surrounded

to 1406.'

Heg. 8o5,.on]y by attendants, plunged in the fame vice as V—v—' himself. His contempt for the Mahometan law, and for all the customs which the Mussulmen consider as of great importance, broke the sole ties that engaged them to their prince, and made them soon look on him as an usurper. The good Mussulmen exclaimed, that the Ottoman empire was about to fall, since the crimes of its master were continually soliciting the vengeance of Heaven; that God would raise up another Tamerlane to punish the Ottomans all together for so many impieties, of which they made themselves accomplices, by tamely permitting them. Soiyman-s Musa fomented at a distance this revolt. /=serthim, Though he had not had the firmness to wait for Muil! . Solyman at the head of his army, he fought him with success in the heart of his court. He opposed an exterior piety to the scandalous debaucheries of his brother, and assured all those whom the public indignation drew to him, that he would not dethrone Solyman, were it not to avert the evils which menaced their cherished nation. The great officers, the bashaws, and all those that commanded the troops, eagerly listened to the propositions of Musa. .Even Ali, Solyman's grand vizier, to whom Bajazet had intrusted his youth after the battle of Angora, resolved to abandon a master whom he had never been able to divert from debauchery. . The unhappy


prince, more and more besotted by. the wine, J-c-h=13, did not perceive what was plotting under his Hes. 805, eyes. All his officers quitted him one after an- C^^j -other, without his seeming to regard it; none remained with him, but his companions in vice, who made him forget both the cares of war and of the throne, as soon as those were out of sight that sometimes forced him to a remembrance of them. Muia's army was increased by all these chiefs, who had prevailed on their soldiers to follow them by parties: he marched towards Adrianople, without Solyman's appearing to trouble himself about it, or even deigning to inform himself of all these commotions. The malecontents acquired such additional force as they advanced, that there was no appearance that Solyman could ever defend himself. The unhappy prince awoke from his supineness, when it was too late; he had no longer about him, either ministers, chiefs, or soldiers; and his finances were exhausted. Hearing nothing from the people but curses, he considered flight as his only resource; and hoping to find some succour from the Greeek. emperor, his ally, he determined to go and solicit assistance of that prince, whom his father had so cruelly oppressed. .

Solyman determined too late on this necessary step. The scouts of Musa's army arrived at Adrianople exactly as his brother left it. The unfortunate prince fled; his horse, swifter than


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