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lection, yet had an opportunity of seeing the book), that the A man wholly guided by theory, would be ready to Reflectory dectors, same fact is distinctly mentioned by Baptista de Porta condemn light-houses of this description; because a
Reform. in his Magia Naturalis.
violent storm will shake the firmest building, which, in REFLECTION is also used figuratively, for an opera bis opinion, would throw the wbole rays of light into tion of the mind, whereby it turns its view backwards the air, and thus mislead the bewildered mariner. Exas it were upon itself, and makes itself and its own ope- perience, bowever, shows, that such apprehensions are rations the object of its disquisition; and by contem groundless, and that light-houses with lamps and reflecplating the manner, order, and laws, which it observes tors, are in all respects preferable to those with fires in perceiving ideas, comparing them together, reason burning in the open air. They are less expensive; they ing, &c. it fraines new ideas of the relations discovered give a more brilliant light, and are seen at a greater distherein. See METAPHYSICS.
tance, and cannot be obscured by smoke, or driven
repair the light-houses round the coast of Scotland, is
of a funnel, through which the smoke passes with parliament for erecting four light-houses, on the northern
constructing the new reflectors.
to politics and religion, and may innocently be applied
Reform. to any endeavours to change an establishment from such a mode of seduction, (and it deserves no better Rea
worse to better. But it appears at present to have name), when it shall become general, instead of serving been chiefly made a pretence for designs which could
of a real reform, must be to annibilate all not fairly or safely be avowed.
civil order. Dissatisfaction is the most powerful check A reform in religion and in parliament (see PARLIA to honest industry; and dissatisfaction and idleness must MENT), bas, we know, been most loudly called for by be the effect of the wanderings of such men in the laby men whose religious notions are immensely different rinths of politics; which, for uncultivated minds espefrom what has been generally reckoned christianity, and cially, paves the way for every species of vice, and whose designs, as has been legally proved, went to the gradually ripens them for any wickedness, however overthrow of all civil order. For insidious purposes atrocious. For the truth of these remarks, we appeal like these, the word reform is a good cloak, especially to the history of mankind from the creation to the preif any thing can be fixed upon, either in the religion or sent time : and we would seriously request the sober government of the state, which, with the help of exag- friends of reform, and many such, we doubt not, there geration and distortion, can be represented to the weak are, to reflect, that in the present day we have more to and unthinking as extremely defective and erroneous. fear from licentiousness than from despotism ; from re
The general error of these men seems to be, that form carried to an extreme than from the pretended athaving picked up a set of speculative notions which tempts either of kings or ministers to annihilate our real flatter their own pride and the pride of those who listen liberty. to them, they will allow nothing to the arguments of It may also be worth their while to consider, that their opponents or the experience of mankind. They times of public danger are not generally the best adaptthink so often and so much upon their ideal reforms, ed to attempt changes of government; because what that while they imagine their notions are liberal and ex might satisfy one party would probably be thought too tensive, they become contracted beyond imagination ; little by another, and divisions at such a period are most while their judgments, of course, are warped with the dangerous. When, therefore, attempts are made for remost inveterate prejudices (see PREJUDICE). They see, form which appear to be inconsistent with the safety of or think they see, the propriety of their schemes; but the state, restrictions must be used, which may by spethey seldom, perhaps never, reflect, that that may be culative men be thought severe and unnecessary, but true in speculation or in theory which cannot possibly of which they themselves are the causes. These rebe reduced to practice. They will not take the world strictions too will be patiently submitted to by the as it is, and allow it to profit by the wisdom and expe. wiser part of the community, when in more peaceable rience of ages; but they will reform it according to times they would neither have been thought of nor althose ideas of right which they have learned from their lowed. own speculations and airy theories; seldom considering Speculative reasoners may speak as much as they what may be done, they are determined to do what will of enlightening the minds of men, and of refornthey think ought to be done. Liberty of conscience, ing government by the dictates of a refined and disand liberty of action, have been claimed by them as passionate philosophy; but when they come to apply the unalienable rights of man , and so we ourselves are their notions to practice, they will either find their redisposed to think them : nor have we heard that in this presentations little better than empty sounds, and therecountry they have been denied to any man, or set of fore ineffectual; or, as is more generally found to be men, so far as has been thought consistent with the safe the case, these schemes which in theory appeared to be ty of the state, and that of the other individuals who perfect, will in practice, when combined with the macompose it. At the same time, the very same men hesi. lignant and ambitious passions of men, lead to ruin and tate not to blame, with acrimony the most violent, and disorder. The first institution of government, except to the utmost of their power to restrain, the actions and among the Jews, was unquestionably the effect of pasopinions of those who, with equal conviction, often on sion and interest combined; and this passion and this better grounds, and generally with more modesty, differ interest, restrained within due bounds, is productive of from them.
much happiness. That government, we believe, too, Amidst that excessive ardour, too, with which they will be best supported, and most productive of happipropagate their opinions, they forget the extreme dan- ness, in which the mutual passions and interests of the ger of withdrawing the attention of that part of the individuals who compose it are so equally poised as to community, who must earn their bread by the sweat support one another, and to promote each the ends and of their brow, from their proper occupations, to the success of the other : and this by the abiest reasoners tempestuous sea of political debate, for which their and the best men has been thought to be the case with education and mode of life cannot possibly have quali- the British constitution. If the modern favourers of fied them. It requires but very little penetration, reform should think this an unstable support, if they however, to be able to see, that it can be of no real will consider the world as it ever has been, and as it is, service either to the individuals themselves, or to the they will find it the only one we have, except religion; community at large, in whatever light we look upon it. and they will thence be inclined to make the best of it. Indeed, to make those the judges of the law, and the If after all, however, they should be disposed to doubt reformers of the legislature, who have all their lives the position, we have only further to request them, with been employed in manual labour, is the extreme of fol- the sincerity of men and of Christians, to consult their ly; and yet it is what some men of considerable abili own breasts, and seriously to consider the probable moties, and from whom we had reason to expect better tives of those who act with them. They will then perthings, have more than once attempted. The effect of haps see, and they surely ought to acknowledge, that
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virtue of indulgences, as such conduct could not but ex. REFORMATION, in general, an act of reform clude him for ever from any chance of a share in the
Reforma. ing or correcting an error or abuse in religion, disci traffic, which otherwise perhaps he might have obtained. tion bezwa pline, or the like. By way of eminence the word is Besides, the extreme contrariety of this traffic to the by Luther. used for that great alteration and reformation in the common principles of reason and honesty was so great, corrupted system of Christianity, begun by Luther in that we cannot wonder at finding one man in the world the year 1517.
who had sense enough to discern it, and virtue enough Under the article HISTORY (sect. ii.), the various to oppose such an infamous practice. In all probabili. corruptions in religion, the oppressions and usurpations ty, however, the insignificancy of the first reformer was of the clergy, and the extreme insolence of the popes, the reason why he was not persecuted and exterminated
have been so fully treated of, that any further detail at his first beginning, as others had been before him. The pope here is unnecessary. It is sufficient to observe, that, Another reason probably might be, that he did not at
assumes the before the period of the Reformation, the pope had in once attack the whole errors of Popery, but brought 12 disposal of the most audacious manner declared himself the sove about his reformation gradually, probably as it occurred
were inhabited by those who were not Christians, be life.
. He proceeded
person the character of Antichrist sitting in the temple allquarters, he being continually protected by the German * 2 Thess. of God, and showing himself as God*. He had long princes either from religious or political motives, so that
before, say they, assumed the supremacy belonging to bis adversaries could not accomplish his destruction as
minions. Melancthon, Carlostadius, and other men of
by Char. v. were inculcated upon them; when, in 1517, the empire the pope ; and the most effectual method of doing this of superstition began to decline, and has continued to do was by destroying Luther. The pope's legates insistso ever since. The person who made the first attack on ed that Luther ought to be condemned by the diet of the extravagant superstitions then prevailing was Martin Worms without either trial or hearing ; as being a Luther; the occasion of which is fully related under most notorious, avowed, and incorrigible beretic. Howthe article LUTHER. By some it is pretended, that ever, this appeared unjust to the members of the diet, the only motive which Luther bad in beginning the and he was summoned to appear; which he accordingly Reformation was his enmity to the Dominican friars, did without hesitation *There is not the least doubt ther.
See La who had excluded his order (the Augustins) from all that his appearance there had been his last in this world, share in the gainful traffic of indulgencies. But this had not the astonishing respect that was paid him, and Vol. XVII. Part II,
Reforma- the crowds who came daily to see him, deterred his thusiast Munzer, or Munster, the anabaptist, put bim- Rekme tion.
judges from delivering the church from the author of self at their head, than the face of things was entirely to:.
life, and was succeeded by his brother John. Frederic, During the confinement of Luther in a castle near though he had protected and encouraged Luther, yet Warburg, the Reformation advanced rapidly; almost was at no pains to introduce the reformed religion into
every city in Saxony embracing the Lutheran opinions. his dominions. But with his successor it was otherwise; Reixas. 5 Form of
At this time an alteration in the established forms of for he, convinced that Luther's doctrine must soon be liaz estu worship worship was first ventured upon at Wittemberg, by abo- totally destroyed and suppressed unless it received a spee
blisted a first altered Jishing the celebration of private masses, and by giving dy and effectual support, ordered Luther and Melanc Saleby. by Wit
the cup as well as the bread to the laity in the Lord's thon to draw up a body of laws relating to the form temberg
supper. In a short time, however, the new opinions were ecclesiastical government, the method of public worsbip, condemned by the university of Paris, and a refutation &c. which was to be proclaimed by heralds throughout of them was attempted by Henry VIII. of England. his dominions. This example was followed by all the But Luther was not to be thus intimidated. He pub- princes and states of Germany who renounced the papal lished bis animadversions on both with as much acrimo supremacy; and a like forn of worship, discipline, and ny as if he had been refuting the meanest adversary; government, was thus introduced into all the churches and a controversy managed by such illustrious antago- which dissented from that of Rome. This open renunnists drew a general attention, and the Reformers daily ciation of the Romish jurisdiction soon changed the face
gained new converts both in France and England. of affairs ; and the patrons of Popery soon intimated, Disputes But while the efforts of Luther were thus every where in a manner not at all ambiguous, that they intended among the crowned with success, the divisions began to prevail to make war on the Lutheran party; which would Reformers
which have since so much agitated the reformed church- certainly have been put in execution, had not the trou
The first dispute was between Luther and Zuin bles that took place in Europe disconcerted their meaglius concerning the manner in which the body and
On the other band, the Lutherans, apprised of blood of Christ were present in the eucharist. Luther these hostile intentions, began also to deliberate on a and his followers, though they had rejected the notion of proper plan of defence against that superstitious vio. transubstantiation, were nevertheless of opinion that the lence with which they were in danger of being assailed. body and blood of Christ were really present in the The diet of the empire assembled at Spire, in the year Resc to Lord's supper, in a way which they could not pretend 1526 ; where the emperor's ambassadors were desired at the is to explain. Carlostadt, who was Lutber's colleague,
to use their utmost endeavours to suppress all disputes corables first suggested another view of the subject, which was af about religion, and to insist upon the rigorous execution the Res. terwards confirmed and illustrated by Zuinglius, name of the sentence which had been pronounced against Ln-muia ly, that the body and blood of Christ were not really
ther and bis followers at Worms. The greatest part of present in the eucharist ; and that the bread and wine the German princes opposed this motion with the utmost were no more than external symbols to excite the re resolution, declaring that they could neither execute that membrance of Christ's sufferings in the minds of those sentence, nor come to any determination with regard to who received it. Both parties maintained their tenets the doctrines by which it had been occasioned, before with the utmost obstinacy; and, by their divisions, first the whole matter was submitted to the decision of a gave their adversaries an argument against them, wbich council lawfully assembled ; alleging farther, that the to this day the Catholics urge with great force ; name
decision of controversies of this nature belonged properly, that the Protestants are so divided, that it is impos ly to it, and to it alone. This opinion, after long apd sible to know who is right or wrong; and that there very warm debates, was adopted by a great majority, and cannot be a stronger proof than these divisions, that the at length consented to by the whole assembly : for it was whole doctrine is false.
unanimonsly agreed to present a solemn address to tbe 7 Disturban
To these intestine divisions were added the horrors emperor, intreating him to assemble, without delay, a ces in Ger-of a civil war, occasioned by oppression on the one hand, free and general council; while in the mean time it was many. and enthusiasm on the other. In 1525, a great num also agreed, that the princes of the empire should, in their
ber of seditious fanatics arose on a sudden in dillerent respective dominions, be at liberty to manage ecclesias-
which at this time ensued between him and tic war, or the war of the peasants. At first this rab the pope, gave the greatest advantage to the friends of ble declared, that they had no other motives than the the reformed, and considerably augmented their numrediess of their grievances; but no sooner had the en ber. Several princes, whom the fear of persecution and
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assistance, publicly renounced the Romish superstition, entirely upon their own courage and union. They de-
determine upon nothing.
Luther and despotic yoke ; nor did they molest the private assem glius concerning the real presence of Christ in the
Zuinglius. blies of those who had separated themselves from the Lord's Supper. To terminate this dispute, if possible, church of Rome. And in general, all the Germans Philip, landgrave of Hesse, invited, in the year 1529, to who, before these resolutions of the diet of Spire, had a conference at Marpurg, Luther and Zuinglius, togerejected the papal discipline and doctrine, were now, in ther with several other of the more eminent doctors who consequence of the liberty they enjoyed, wholly employ- adhered to the respective parties of these contending ed in bringing their schemes and plans to a certain de chiefs: but this measure was not attended with the sagree of consistence, and in adding vigour and firmness lutary effects which were expected from it. The divines to the cause in which they were engaged. But this disputed for four days in presence of the landgrave. Llitranquillity and liberty was of no long duration. In ther attacked Oecolampadius, and Zuinglius was attack1529, a new diet was assembled at the same place by ed by Melancthon. Zuinglius was accused of beresy, the emperor, after he had quieted the troubles in vari not only on account of his explanation of the nature and ous parts of his dominions, and concluded a peace with design of the Lord's Supper, but also in consequence the pope. The power which had been granted to prin- of the false notions he was supposed to bave adopted
ces of managing ecclesiastical affairs till the meeting of concerning the divinity of Christ, the efficacy of the Revoked a general council, was now revoked by a majority of divine word, original sin, and some other parts of the by the em. votes ; and every change declared unlawful that should Christian doctrine. This illustrious reformer, however, peror. be introduced into the doctrine, discipline, or worship cleared himself from the greatest part of these charges
of the established religion, before the determination of with the most triumphant evidence, and in such a man-
of April, and appealed to the emperor and a future of Augsburg. Having foreseen some of the consequenOrigin of council. Hence arose the denomination of Protestants, ces of those disputes, and, besides, taken the advice of he name, which from this period lias been give to those who se men of wisdom, sagacity, and experience, he became at Protestants.
parated from the communion of the church of Rome. Certain times more cool in his proceedings, and more
the emperor with an ill-judged clemency, and alleged
ly, to acquaint him with their proceedings in this emperor paid no regard; looking upon it as a most inimatter. The ministers employed in this commission ex quitous thing, and a measure directly opposite to the ecuted it with the greatest intrepidity, and presence of laws of the empire, to condemn unheard a set of men mind; but the emperor, exasperated at the audacity of who had always approved themselves good citizens, and
13 those who presumed to differ from him, caused the am deserved well of their country in several respects. Hi- Origin of bassadors to be arrested. The news of this violent step therto indeed it was not easy for the emperor to form a the confesmade the Protestant princes conclude, that their per clear idea of the matters in debate, since there was no sion of
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