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Graduated table, showing the amount expended by the different States for the education of each
child, of their school age, fc.
Public school expenditure
per capita of school population.
From census of 1860, per
centage of illiterates over 20 to population over 20.
Percentage of failuros at
entrance examination in the Military Academy for 15 years.
1 Nevada 2 Massachusetts 3 California. 4 Connecticut.. 5 Pennsylvania 6 Mlinois.. 7 Iowa.. 8 New York 9 Vermont.. 10 Kansas 11 Ohio 12 | Michigan 13 New Jersey. 14 Rhode Island.. 15 Minnesota 16 Wisconsin 17 Maine 18 | Maryland. 19 New Hampshire
Arkansas. 21 Louisiana. 22 Delaware 23 Missouri 24 Nebraska
35 Indiana. 26 Alabama. 27 Tennesseo 28 Florida 29 Kentucky. 30 North Carolina...
2. 65+ 2. 65+ 2.37+ 1. 49+
.91+ 1.91+ .60+ . 48+
5. 09 5. 88 5. 74 4. 99 6. 58 6.07 5. 67 4. 52 2.92 22. 10
2. 46 39. 42 53. 25 25. 30 19. 76
.27+ .03+ .00 . 18+ . 18+ . 15+ . 15+ .07+ .20 . 16+ . 45+ .31+ 20
* School population from United States census of 1860; school expenditure of 1868.
School population from United States census of 1860; school expenditure of 1869-'70.
| School population from United States census of 1860; school cxpenditure of 1869. NOTE.-The school expenditure in the States of Oregon and South Carolina, tho school expendituro and school population in the States of Georgia, Texas, and Virginia, and the school population of West Virginia are not ascertainable by reports.
COLLEGES, ETC., IN THE UNITED STATES.
The statistics of colleges in the United States, presented in Table III, , are necessarily imperfect, as indeed are all the statistics presented in
this report; their accuracy depending entirely on the interest taken by the individual institutions mentioned. Every attempt has been made consistent with the limited time allowed. At the time this report is
being written there is very little known-about 80 of the 369 in this table. As the tables will be corrected to the very latest possible moment, I will not attempt here to furnish a complete résumé, but only such as I have the materials for at the present time.
Of the 369 colleges, then, there areIn Alabama... 4 In New Hampshire.....
1 In Arkansas. 1 In New Jersey
6 In California.. 15 In New York....
27 In Connecticut. 3 In North Carolina...
10 In Delaware.. 2 In Ohio....
35 In Georgia.. 21 In Oregon.
4 In Illinois, 28 In Pennsylvania..
34 In Indiana. 19 In Rhode Island..
1 In Iowa.. 13 In South Carolina..
7 In Kansas. 7 In Tennessee.....
20 In Kentucky... 10 In Texas ...
4 In Louisiana. 7 In Vermont.
3 In Maine.. 4 In Virginia.....
11 In Maryland.. 10 In West Virginia....
3 In Massachusetts... 6 In Wisconsin ....
14 In Michigan..... 7 In District of Columbia.....
4 In Minnesota.. 2 In Utah Territory.....
1 In Mississippi... 5 In Washington Territory...
1 Ip Missouri..
Of the 369 colleges, 25 are under the supervision of States; 1 of a city, and 1 of the masonic fraternity; supervisory power over 83 is undetermined. The remaining 259 are divided among the denominations as follows: Methodist Episcopal..... 60 Friends ....
3 Roman Catholic.... 47 Universalist..
3 Baptist..... 37 United Presbyterian....
2 Presbyterian. 28 | Free Will Baptist..
2 Congregational..... 19 Moravian ....
1 Protestant Episcopal.
16 African Methodist Episcopal..... 1 Lutheran... 7 Reformed Dutch
1 Church of Christ.. 7 New Church....
1 German Reformed.. 5 Latter Day Saints.
1 United Brethren... 4 Unitarian....
1 Cumberland Presbyterian
3 In the 299 colleges reporting, (up to date,) there were 3,201 instructors and over 54,500 pupils. One hundred and sixty-seven colleges instruct males only; 54 instruct females only; 77 admit both; and of 71 the sex of the students is unknown.
From the best information in possession of this Bureau at the time of preparing this statement, the number of theological seminaries in the United States is as follows: In Alabama, 1; in California, 2; Connecticut, 3; Georgia, 1; Illinois, 10; Iowa, 3; Kentucky, 6; Louisiana, 1; Maine, 2; Maryland, 2; Massachusetts, 6; Michigan, 1; Minnesota, 1;
Missouri, 2; New Jersey, 3; New York, 11; Ohio, 9; Pennsylvania, 15; South Carolina, 3; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 1; Virginia, 4; Wisconsin, 4; District of Columbia, 1; total, 93.
These are divided among the following denominations :
As the table of theological seminaries among the accompanying papers will be corrected to the latest possible date, reference to it for more correct information is made.
SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE.
The total number of institutes of medicine and kindred branches reported is 88; professors, 588; pupils, 6,943. Medical colleges, 72; professors, 523; pupils, (1869–70,) 6,194. Regular colleges, 59; professors, 430; pupils, 5,670. Eclectic colleges, 5; professors, 22; pupils, 211. Homeopathic colleges, 7; professors, 65, pupils, 275. Physiomedical colleges, 1; professors, 6; pupils 42. Dental colleges, 6; professors, 39; pupils, 257. Pharmaceutical schools, 10; societies, 9; professors, 26; pupils, 512.
In connection with this table special attention is invited to the article on Medical education, which has been carefully prepared from the materials on hand. This will explain the apparent prominence given to some institutions in certain parts of the article. For instance, no late catalogue or announcement of any medical college in New York for males is on file in the office.
The résumé of the latest statistics of law schools, presented in Table VI, shows, up to date, 28 institutions, with 99 professors and 1,653 pupils.
For the latest corrections reference is made to the table itself.
AGRICULTURAL AND SCIENTIFIC SCHOOLS.
The résumé of the latest facts respecting these institutions gives 26 schools, 144 teachers, and 1,413 students. Some of these institutions are due to private munificence, but most of them to the act of Congress donating public lands for the establishment of colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts. This action came none too soon. Our workmen, especially those engaged in occupations requiring skill, were already suffering in comparison with those producing similar fabrics in foreign countries. The American College, pressed to its utmost capacity, seizing every opportunity afforded it, was failing to give that training with reference to the industries which the changed condition of society and occupation required. Secondary education was equally inadequate.
President Folwell, of the University of Minnesota, observes : Outside of these institutions stood quite uninterested the great body of the population: the tillers of the soil, the delvers in the mines, the sailors of the sea and boatmen of the rivers, the artisans in stone, wood, and iron, the carriers, and the great army of mere laborers. For all these no provision was made, nor was expected to be made, in the way of schooling beyond the rudiments taught in the common schools. In the course of two or three decades an immense revolution has taken place. The steam-engine, the telegraph, the cylinder press, the new processes of chemistry, the extension of geographical discovery, have raised many of the trades almost to the rank of professions. These farmers, artisans, and tradesmen are knocking at the doors of our educational circumlocution offices, “wanting to know.” In short, a huge load in the way of technical education bas been thrown upon us; for these classes are not asking merely for the ordinary instruction in mathematics, language, science, and history, but in the application of science to their respective arts and trades. There are demands not only for general schools of technology, but for special schools for agriculturists and horticulturists, for miners, for navigators, and for engineers. The mercantile classes cannot long be satisfied with the meager and unscientific training offered in the business colleges. The normal school, almost a necessary incident of any system of public schools, no longer needs apologists nor defenders.
Here, then, are new elements and conditions in the problem. It is no longer a small number of persons preparing for professional work, who are demanding higher education, but a vast body of people, hitherto unknown to educators, thronging forward, clamoring to be taught how to do their work in the best way. These new demands, so far from supplanting the ancient liberal discipline, but multiply the need of it.
Without attempting to characterize the result of this donation by Congress, or the success of the various State efforts, I may quote a statement made in another address by this very intelligent educator:
Maine has her separate college, and will make a specialty of the building, rigging, and navigation of ships. New Hampshire has confided her trust to Dartmouth College; Vermont, hers to the State University. Massachusetts has divided her fund, one-third of it going to the Agricultural College at Amherst, two-thirds to the School of Technology near Boston, which school is devoted of course to the mechanic arts. Rhode Island passes her money over to Brown University, which will operate a department of agriculture. Connecticut unites her share of the endowment with the splendid privato benefaction which founded the Sheffield Scientific School at New Haven. This school, already an assured success, is under control of the corporation of Yale College.
The Empire State has been most fortunate of all. She not only received the largest share of the land grant, 990,000 acres, but Providence gave her Ezra Cornell, with his great wealth and still greater heart. Thanks to his unstinted liberality, the Cornell University stands already in the front rank of American colleges.
Pennsylvania and Michigan have successful schools on separate foundations in operation.
How imperfectly this entire field of educational effort is understood, none know better than those who have attempted it. A considerable number of States are, as yet, entirely unable to present results, while in others the course to be pursued is in doubt. Great and commendable as was this gift by Congress, the experience in its administration sag. gests that corresponding educational inquiry should have preceded and accompanied it. Had the valuable information, collected by my predecessor, Hon. Henry Barnard, LL. D., on technical schools, been promptly published and widely circulated, hundreds of thousands of dollars would have been saved in the management of this great trust and unspeakably greater results secured.
It will be noticed that 26 commercial colleges have been reported to the Bureau, with 154 professors and 5,824 students. These institutions, through many difficulties and imperfections, it is believed, are finding their way into a very useful field of labor. There will be special interest in noticing the extent to which they are preparing women for clerical positions.
THE MILITARY ACADEMY.
Believing that good to education would be accomplished by an authen. tic statement of the grounds of failure in the examination for admission at the Military and Naval Academies, I addressed a letter of inquiry, approved by the President, to the respective superintendents, asking for a detailed statement extending over thedast fifteen years, showing the number of these failures, and the subjects in which they occurred.
No reply has been received from the Naval Academy. The table received from General Pitcher, Superintendent of the Military Academy, will be found among the statistics appended to this report.
It will be observed that of the 1,459 appointees, 41, or nearly 2 per cent., were rejected for physical disability, and 285, or nearly 194 per cent., on account of literary incompetency. Of these 285 rejected, 76 were deficient in reading, 80 in geography, 81 in history, 98 in grammar, 133 in arithmetic, and 173 in writing and orthography.
It may be interesting to some to know that, during the period referred to, 138 of the appointees served as soldiers prior to their appointment; of these 5 were rejected on account of physical disability, and 20 on account of literary deficiencies, 5 of them being deficient in history, 5 in geography, 8 in grammar, 10 in writing and orthography, 10 in reading, and 12 in arithmetic.