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1 1837.

BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD.
COST, EARNINGS, EXPENSES, ETC., OF THE MAIN STEM YEARLY OF TOE BALTIMORE AND OHIO

RAILROAD.
Cost of Mile Gross earnings.

Total Earnings, Dividends, Years. road, etc. age. Passengers. Freight. earnings. less expen's. Amount. P.ct 1830. $1,178,165 14 $14,711

$14,711 $2,726 1831. 2,000,000 61 27,250 $4,155 31,405 20,410 69,075 3 1832.

2,250,000 69 67,910 69,027 136,937 61,264 1833, 2,500,000 69 83,233 121,447 195,680 57,195 30,061 1 1834. 3,000,000 81 89,182 116,255 205,437 67,035 1835. 3,311,250 81 93,540 169,828 263,368 102,152

45,002 1 1836. 3,474,600 81 128,126 153,185 281,342 68,375

3,600,000 81 145,625 155,676 301,301 12,176 1838. 3,800,000 81 166,694 198,530 365,224 93,643 1839. 4,000,000 81 173,860 233,487 407,347 93,647 1840. 4,000,000 81 177,035 255,848 432,883 157,694 80,000 14 1841. 4,000,000 81 179,816 211,454 891,070 151,448 130,000 2 1842. 7,350,000 178 181,177 245,315 426,492 209,777 1843. 7,670,911 178 274,617 300,618 575,235 279,402 140,000 2 1844, 7,641,821 178 336,876 821,743 658,619 346,986 175,000 21 1845. 7,742,410 178 369,882 368,721 738,603 374,762 1846. 7,725,100 178 413,341 468,346 881,687 426,847 210,000 1847. 8,064,597 178 447,020 654,917 1,101,937 611,108 210,000 3 1848. 8,798,479 178 434,540 779,124 1,213,664 651,558 227,400 37 1849. 8,798,479 178 394,497 846,708 1,241,205 696,571 361,302 57 1850. 8,798,619 178 395,830 945,975 1,341,805 732,216 531,209 7 1851. 13,038 590 206 355,165 994,067 1,349,222 653,303 568,393 7 1852. 18,000,000 302 375,654 949,809 1,425,563 615,384 608,181 7 1853. 20,708,028 380 464,245 1,569,174 2,033,419 797,792 294,099 3 1854. 22,210,850 380 669,091 3,076,518 3,645,909 1,619,397 1855. 22,760,205 380 608,299 3,103,354 3,711,453 1,601,090 1856. 23,304,720 380 672,999 3,712,952 4,385,951 2,001,172 302,348 1857. 24,413,948 380 732,262 3,884,736 4,116,998 1,856,213 302,348 1858. 24,802,646 380 682,877 3,174,609 3,856,486 1,325,287 1859. 24,891,415 380 690,207 2,928,411 3,618,618 1,933,620 403,348 3

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Total. 303,842,810 5,423 9,744,351 29,604,790 39,319,141 17,421,250 4,589,866 Aver. 10,128,094 181 324,812 986,826 1,311,638 580,708 186,329 2

The dividends from 1848 to 1852, inclusive, were paid in stock. ABSTRACT OF THE TONNAGE TRANSPORTED EASTERLY FROM STATIONS OF THE MAIN STEM AXD

DELIVERED AT BALTIMORE FOR THE YEARS ENDING 30TH OF SEPTEMBER. 1832

29,416 1839 44,852 | 1846 94,670 11853 459,495 1833 37,166 1840

60,503 | 1847 158,466 1854 661,567 1834 36,192 1841

40,482 1848 157,405 1855 622,589 1835

46,979 1842 36,616 | 1849 176,610 1856 703,377 1836 40,805 1843

62,634 | 1850 230,388 1837 723,019 1837

40,696 1844 57,107 1851 246,724 1868 678,085 1838 45,663 | 1815

71,061 1862 .... 262,243 1859.... 566,214

1st 7 years 276,917 2d 7 years Average.. 39,559 | Average..

363,255 3d 7 years 1,316,506 1th 7 y’ars 4,314,377 51,894 ! Average.. 188,072 Average.. 616,639

FRENCH RAILWAYS. According to an article in the Journal des Chemins de Fer, the total length of the network of French railways was, on the 1st July last, 16.539 kilometres, (5 of a mile each,) of which 7,880 kilometres were old, and 8,659 new. Of this length, 9,217 kilometres are at work ; 5,563 in course of construction, or shortly to be so; and 1,647 only eventually conceded. The sum expended, and to be expended, amounts to 5,781 millions, of which 3,589,500,000 francs had been employed up to the 31st of December, 1859.

NEW YORK STATE CANALS, We take from Poor's “ History of Railways," an interesting work just published, the following in relation to the New York canals :

There is no doubt that the Erie, the leading work in the system of New York canals, is by far the most important artificial highway in the United States, both in the extent of its present commerce and in the influence it has exerted in advancing the population, wealth, and material interests of the country. Its (pening, in fact, gave, for the first time, commercial value to the products of the interior. According to a report made in 1817, to the Legislature of the State of New York, the cost of transporting a ton of merchandise from Buffalo to Albany equaled $100, a sum far exceeding the value, in New York, of most of the agricultural products of the country. The time required was twenty days. The canal at once reduced the cost from $100 to $20, and the time from 20 to 8 days. With the improvements on the canal, and the enlargement, the cost of movement has been steadily reduced, so that, for the past year, the average charge for transporting a ton of merchandise from Albany to Buffalo was $2 40 including tolls. "The tabular statements accompanying this memoir present in a condensed manner the progress, amount, and value of the commerce of this great work :STATEMENT OF THE RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS ON ACCOUNT OF ALL THE STATE CASALS FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE WORKS TO THE 30TH SEPTEMBER, 1859.

RECEIPTS. Loans (and revenue certificate of 1851-2).

$50,449,552 Premiums on loans, etc.

2,521,443 Temporary loans.

2,851,467 Gross tolls....

70,565,737 Tax.

3,827,191 Vendue duty

3,592,039 Salt duty...

2,065,557 Steanıboat tax..

73,509 Sales of land...

320,518 Interest on investments and deposits..

3,484,594 Rent of surplus water

76,034 General fund for deficiencies..

1,386,499 Erie and Ch. Canal for Black River Capal and Erie Canal feeder... 290,098 Erie and Champlain Canal for deficiencies

4,540,971 Miscellaneous...

1,213,083

$146,858,123

Total.....

PAYMENTS.
Discounts on loans........
Principal of loans..
Premium on purchase and investment of stock.
Temporary loans.
Ioterest on loans..
Canal Commissioners-construction..
Seneca Lake Navigation Company:
Black River Canal for Erie Caual feeder..
General fund...
General fund debt...
Deficiencies of lateral canal and Oneida River improvement.
Oneida Lake Canal feeder
Repairs of canal-contractors..

superintendents.
Collectors and inspectors....
Weigh-masters....
Miscellaneous.
Balance on hand 30th September.

$390,061 26,214,615

366,777 2,643,967 27,413,493 55,106,814

53,872 290,098 4,137,603 3,884,417 4,540,971

50,000

571,364 16.360.716 1,526,638

182,928 2,194,716 1,319,104

Total....

$146,858,123

STATEMENT SHOWING THE AMOUNT OF TOLLS (INCLUDING RENTS FROM SURPLUS WATER)

AND THE COST OF COLLECTION AND REPAIRS FROM 1826, YEARLY.
Fiscal
Gross tolls Expenses Fiscal

Gross tolls Expenses years. collected. & repairs. years.

collected. & repairs. 1826. $854,508 $531,676 1845....

2,375,533 738,106 1827 881,134 494,701 | 1846..

2,798,850 639,353 1828. 831,002 393,518 1847..

3,463,710 643,766 1829. 817,919 357,588 1848.

3,156,968 855,851 1830. 1,045,163 292,674 1849.

3,378,920 686,804 1831 (9 months) 751,269 224,420 | 1850..

3,393,081 835,966 1832. 1,112,918 428,965 | 1851..

3,703,999 907,730 1833. 1,388,381 487,797 | 1852.

3,174,857 1,049,(046 1834. 1,387,715 534,898 1853.

3,162,190 1,098,377 1835. 1,484,596 510,525 | 1854.

2,982,115 1,237,866 1836. 1,598,455 467,599 1855..

2,632,901 989,792 1837. 1,325,610 608,994 | 1856.

3,721,741 786,633 1838. 1,46 2.275 622,027 | 1857.

2,531,804 970,453 1839 1,655,789 504,758 1858.

2,047,391 1,078,879 1840. 1,606,827 575,021 | 1859.

1,814,362 897,879 1,989,687 514,518 1842.

1.797,454 642,584 Total...... $69,564,425 22,675,768 1843. 1,953,829 631,146 Average...

2,046,013 666,934 1844.

2,388,457 636,858

1841.

STATE CANALS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT. An intelligent correspondent, says the Railway Review, sends us the following figures in regard to the interminable question of canal management:-

By the report of our Controller, it appears. that the cost of these great works, which “ have enriched the parties engaged in the carrying trade,” amounts to $12,269,170 52--that the debt has increased from 1836 to '58, $18,131,958 29 --that the interest paid during the same period, amounts to $20.558,686 95-and that $17,867,268 73 have been paid to the managers for enlargement since 1854. In the report of the Auditor is the following results of its business dur. ing the last ten years :-Ascending and descending traffic amounted to....

..tons 37,856,141 Average per year. .

3,788,614 Value....

$1,760,890,960 Average per year..

136,089,096 Tolls received..

27,133,357 Average

2,713,335 Tolls-equal to 41.62 cents per ton--tolls 10 per cent on value. Of the amount thus carried, the

Toll. Product of the forest.....

15,044,653 $5,025,985 Average...

1,504,465 602,598 33.40 cents. Proportion to entire tonnage.. 394 p. ct. 184 p. ct. Agricultural produce..

11,152,465 11,760,685 Average...

1,115,205 1,176,068 $1.0008 Proportion to entire toppage.

294 p. ct. 41} p. ct. Manufactures

2,513,654 1,134,607 Average..

251.365 113,460 45.14 cente. Proportion to entire business..

68 p. ct. 44 p. ct. Merchandise.......

3,277,155 5,272,375 Average....

327,715 562,737 $1 68—60c. pr ton. Proportion to entire tonnage.

8+ p. ct. 20} p. ct. Other articles...

6,528,580 1,627,603 Average

652,858 162,740 Proportion to entire tonnage.. 177 p. ct. 51 p. ct.

Tons.

Per ton.

Thus we have the product of the forest, at 394 per cent of the entire tonnage. and only 184 per cent of the gross receipts, while the agricultural produce, amounting to 294 per cent of the entire tonnage, paid 417 per cent of the gross receipts.

In the period between 1850 and 1859, the increase in the lumber toppage is 280,044 tons, and the increase in tolls is but $115,177 ; while the product of the farm fell off 148,835 tons, and the tolls were reduced from $1,492,639 to $754,855.

..lbs.

689

CANAL COMMERCE. We annex a comparative statement, derived from official records, of the re-/ ceipts at Richmond, and shipments thence, of various articles, per James River and Kapawha Canal, during the fiscal years ending 30th September, 1858–59, and '60. Where the blanks occur no record was kept :Inward.

1860. 1859.

1858. Apples..

..bbls.

307 2,105 Bacon.

73.818 23,749 Bbls. empty, liquor.

2,363 1,073 flour..

28,137 32,893 Butter..

Ibs.

46,153 76,620 Coal..

.tons 21,305 14,156 17,477 Corn.

busb. 10,933 12,565 10,457 Corn meal..

713 Copper ore.

..tons
1,064 1,072

226 Cotton...

.bales

315

none Flaxseed.

..bush, 7,335 1,517 Flour....

bbls. 78,711 104,434 112,969 Fruit, dried.

..lbs. 343,319 453,051 Hay....

.bales 6,010 Iron, pig.

.tons

4,172 4,814 5,298 Lard.

...lbs. 7,600 25,781 Lead.

.tons
109
371

507 Leather..

...lbs. 65,836 102,064 Live Stock, viz:Cattle...

25

12 Calves

49

19 Horses

9 Hogs.

735

876 Lambs...

10

12 Sheep.

131

57 Oats.

.bush.
577 1,000

690 Shot.

..bags 7,969 8,000 Stone..

...tons 20,898 7,015 8,309 Stems.

hhds. 2,308 1,378 1,138 Tobacco..

15,267 13,183 16,286 manufactured.

.pkgs.

63,076 57,181 48,408 Wheat,

.bush. 695,388 723,477 916,482 Whicky..

313

513 Wood..

..cords 9,540 5,689 6,077 Wool.

lbs. 35,789 31,252
Outward-
Castings.

.tons
362
259

62 Coal...

9,724 6,691 6,226 Fish.

bble. 3.952 6,246 5,315 Guano..

.tons 9,072 8,209 6,304 Iron, bar..

..tons
2,518 2,601

486 Nails.

.kegs

16,390 14,288 11,364 Plaster.

tons 9,075 5,145 6,112 Salt...

.sacks 26,045 25,586 27,621

14

STATISTICS OF AGRICULTURE, &c.

CROPS WITHOUT MANURE. Already we are spending £4,000,000 a year in foreign manures, says the London News, and to have to increase this expenditure will be a counterpoise to any economy of grass at home. As if to meet this anxiety, agricultural art is now showing that the greater part of this outlay for foreign manures is needless. When the agricultural knowledge which is now enriching the few has extended to the many, it will be a subject of surprise and vexation that we should have thrown away millions of money and years of disputation with the Peruvian and other governments on foreign manures, which have been for the most part unnecessary. It is to the application of geological and chemical science that we owe the discovery of the waste we have been making. As an illustration, take the case of the Lois Weedon husbandry, now at last exciting the attention which it should have obtained a dozen years ago. At Lois Weedon an agriculturist has for seventeen years raised wheat crops on the same soil-crops now amounting io from thirty-six to forty bushels per acre-without the application of any manure at all. This gentleman, the Rev. S. Smith, understood the composition of our clay lands—the great expanse of wheat land which we have as yet bardly begun to develop. It was clear to him that the mineral elements requisite for wheat production had never been either developed or husbanded as they might be by our traditional methods of tillage; and he has proved, by a continued success of seventeen years, that be judged rightly. It is enough to say here that he has turned up an increasing depth to the air, and that by this method half the soil is left fallow each year alternately. He sows his wheat in triple rows with the space of a foot between them, and leaves an interval of three feet—the stubbles of each season being the fallows of the next. The unequaled quality of the straw thus airily grown, and the excellence of the grain it bears, are undisputed ; and there can be no question as to the productiveness when, in fact, the moiety of each acre produces the quantity we have stated, on soil which was at first of only average quality. The economy of manure is even carried further. Light soils, unsuitable for wheat, are manured with clay merely, and thus raised to a wheat-bearing quality. Improvements of a kind like this open wide prospects of economy and fertility at once, and should raise our spirits more than any bad weather should depress them; and when we see that seventeen years may be required to teach us how to use our own soil for the production of our daily food, we may well question whether our occasional difficulties from untoward seasons are not evils which we may expect to outgrow.

This improved husbandry is a sufficient answer to the apprehensions expressed by some melancholy men who calculate the number of years that the guano and other special manures will hold out, and conclude that then we must starve. But there is another fact which has a bearing on this. Our free-trade in corn has so lowered the price of grain, and restricted its fluctuations, that not only are the speculations of corn dealers reduced to regularity, but the cultivation of wheat is being brought within its natural limits in England. Our farmers are more and more devoting their least suitable wheat lands to the growth of roots,

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