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so that there may still be all the stock, and consequently all the manure that can possibly be wanted. This is a direct and natural consequence of the free importation of grain, by which the price will always be kept moderate. So, at least, the farmers in our wheat-growing districts say, and we bave no doubt they are quite right. If, together with this, we learn to make such use of our clay soils as is made at Lois Weedon, wbile by commerce we command the surplus of all the lands of the globe, we may feel assured that in coming generations there will always be food enough for man and beast.

No. of cows.

2

COWS.
8..
9..

9

14.....

THE LACTOMETER, An instrument called the lactometer, says the Boston Courier, is used, it is said, by the milk inspector of Boston to determine, when the question is raised, whether or not a specific quantity of milk has been adulterated. In order to show the utter worthlessness of this instrument, it is only necessary to present the following facts :

The milk of 42 cows was tested by this instrument, which showed a variation from 1008 to 1031 ; of these 42 cows, several gave milk of 1023, as shown by the lactometer, and but three as high as 1031.

Fourteen other cows' milk was tested by the lactometer, with the following results :Milk, Skim milk,

Milk, Skim milk, specific specific Cream, No. of

specific specific Cream, gravity. gravity. prccut.

gravity. gravity, pr cent. l... 1031

1029 1030 2.. 1029 21

1030 1031 7 3.. 1019 1027 26

10.....

1024 1028 10 4.. 1008 1026 80 11....

1027 1031 10 5.. 1030 21 12.

1023 1030 25 6.. 1027 1030

13.....

1024 1031 7..... 1026 1028 13

1025 1029 10 From an examination of this table, it appears that milk may be of a high specific gravity and poor in cream, as see 1; or it may be of low specific grav. ity and produce a large quantity of cream, as see 4, above. It will also be noticed that the removal of cream increases the density of the milk in every case. It will be further noticed that none of the samples of a low specific gravity show a deficiency of cream. The specific gravity of the serum of milk is due mainly to the sugar contained in it.

Apother test was made by taking the first milk drawn and the last of the same milking, with the following results :

Second milk. 1
Milk,
Milk,

Milk,

Milk, specific Cream, specific Cream,

specific Cream, specific Cream, gravity. pr cent. gravity. pr cent. Cows. gravity, pr cent. gravity. pr cent. )..... 1027

1033
6..... 1030

1022 25 2..... 1026

1023 22 7.... 1029 31 1026 3.... 1027

1025 10
8.... 1031

1030 5 1029 7 1024 15 5..... 1030 11 1024 32

613

1411 An examination of the tables show that the second milks are of a much lower specific gravity than the first, and had the lactometer test above been relied on, they would have been pronounced inferior in richness to the first, a conclusion the reverse of what is shown to be the fact; as the first eight samples amounted to 614 per cent of cream, while that of the last amounted to 1411, that is to say,

Second milk.

Cows.

25

8

9 13 8

2

4....

more than double the percentage of cream. This fact shows how little can be known by the lactometer.

A similar test was made of ten samples of morning and evening milk, with the percentage of cream and curd. The average specific gravity of the morning milk was 1029 ; total of cream, 774 ; of curd, 693. Of the evening milk, average specific gravity, 1027; total of cream, 961 ; curd, 810. It appears from the above that the ordinary specific gravity of milk varies from 1031 to 1008.

Mr. Flint, in his book on “ Dairy Farming," says: “No reliable (trustworthy) conclusion, as to whether a particular specimen of milk has been adulterated or not, can be drawn from the difference in specific gravity alone. But knowing the specific gravity, at the outset, (just what the milk inspector does not know,) of any specimen of milk, the hydrometer (lactometer) would show the amount of water added. This cheap and simple instrument is of frequent service.” Not, however, for detecting adulteration in any case where the specific gravity is unknown when milked.

It is hoped, therefore, that Boston will not much longer tolerate this miserable lactometrical interference with the milk business. If it be necessary to have a milk inspector, appoint a chemist that understands organic chemistry, and how to apply it.

It is seen from the above table that skim milk is of a higher specific gravity than unskimmed milk. What then prevents the dealer from reducing skim milk to the average test of good milk by adding water, whose specific gravity is 1000, and they selling it for pure milk, according to the inspector's lactometer ?

Again, milk varies in its composition, as seen by the following table of ingredients in 100 parts :

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Casien.... 1.54 1.52 2.9 4.0 4.48 1.7 1.82 4.08 4.50 1.6 Butter 4.37 3.55 2.3

4.6 3,13

1.4

0.11 3.32 4.20 trace Sugar. 5.75 6.50 3.8 3.8 4.77 6.4 6.08 5.28 5.0 8.7 Ash 0.53 0.45 0.6 0.60

0.34 0.58

0.68 Water 87.81 87.98 91.0 87.0 87.02 90.05 91.65 86.8 85.62

}89.6 Of these analyses the first three are woman's milk ; 4th and 5th, cow's; 6th and 7th, ass's ; 8th, goat's ; 9th, ewe's; and 10th, mare’s. Of these, 1 and 4 are by Dr. Leon PLAYFAIR ; 3 is the average of two analyses by HaidLEN ; 5 is the average of five apalyses by PELigot; and 2, 5, 7, 8 and 9 are by Henry and CHEVALLIER.

The following table gives the results of numerous analyses of cow's milk-ingredients in 100 parts :

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Casien.... 3 32 4.2 4 0 4.48 4.17 3.42 3.8 5.6 5.1 3.6 Butter. 3.99 4.92 4.6 3.13 3.70 2.29 3,5 3.6 3.0 4.0 Sugar. 5.01 4.16 3.8 4.77 4.35 2.79 )

6.1 4.0 4.6 Ash

5.0 0.22

0.60 0.59 0.525

0.55 0.6 Water 87.46 86.16 87.0 87.02 87.19 90.42 86.6 86.8 87.3 87.4

Of these, 1 is the average of ten analyses by BoussingAULT, from cows about two hundred days after calving, and fed on rather poor feed ; Nos. 2 and 3 are the averages of eight analyses by PlayFair, of autumn milk; all the others are by celebrated chemists. These tables will convince any one that it is no easy matter to convict a person of adulterating milk, when done by water in an ordinary degrec, either by chemistry or the lactometer.

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STATISTICS OF POPULATION, &c.

POPULATION OF OHIO. The National Democrat gives a table of the census returns of the Northern District of Ohio, by counties, contrasted with the census returns of 1850, and the Cincinnati Enquirer publishes a table of the population of the Southern District, as taken by the Marshal, with the single exception of Hamilton County. This is not given, as the returns for Cincinnati are not yet fully revised, and there will be probably several thousand pames from the more thickly-settled wards to add to the enumeration of 162,000, which was the last footing ascertained. The following is a table of the population of Ohio, by counties, arranged alphabetically :1850. 1860.

1860. 1860. Adams 18,883 20,310 Lorain ...

26.086 29,836 Allen 12,109 21,184 Lucas..

12,363 25,770 Ashland.. 23,813 22,976 Madison

10,015 13,099 Ashtabula.. 28,767 31,956 Mahoning

23,737 25,899 Athens .. 18,216 21,406 Marion

12,618 15,544 Auglaize. 11,338 17,199 Medina...

24,141 22,695 Belmont... 34,600 36,438 Meigs.

17,971 26,512 Brown. 27,332 29,962 Mercer

7,712 14,110 Butler 30,789 35,853 Miami...

24,999 30,151 Carroll 17,685 15,771 Montgomery.

36,218 51,247 Champaign. 19,782 22,659 Monroe...

28,351 25,783 Clark.... 22,178 25,269 Morgan..

28,585 22,120 Clermont.. 30,455 33,025 Morrow ..

20,280 20,492 Clinton. 18,858 21,601 Muskingum.

45,049 44,372 Columbiana 33,621 32,845 Noble, (new county)

21.779 Cosbocton... 25,674 25,127 Ottawa.....

3,308 7,017 Crawford 18,177 24,023 Paulding.

1,766 4,983 Cuyahoga.. 48,038 78,196 Perry

20,775 19,678 Darke.... 20,276 25,976 Pickaway.

21,006 23,469 Defiance... 6,966 11,887 Pike

10,953 13,643 Delaware... 21,817 23,979 Portage.

24,419 24,255 Erie.. 18,568 24,473 Preble.

21,736

21,797 Fairfield.. 30,264 30,723 Putnam

7,221 12,826 Fayette.... 12,726 15,935 | Richland..

30,979 31,224 Franklin... 42,909 51,619 Ross.

32,074 35,076 Fulton.. 7,781 14,092 Sandusky

14,305 21,471 Gallia... 17,063 22,046 Scioto....

18,428 24,547 Geauga. 17,827 15,879 Seneca

27,104 30,930 Greene. 21,946 26,187 Shelby

13,958 17,511 Guernsey.. 30,438 24,483 Stark

39,878 43,060 Hancock... 16,751 22,892 Summit...

27,485 27,580 Hardin 8,251 13,634 Trumbull

30,490 30,641 Harrison. 20,157 19,152 Tuscarawas

31,761 82,509 Henry. 3,434 8,913 Union.....

12,204 16,535 Highland 25,781 27,787 Van Wert...

4,793 10,249 Hocking... 14,119 15,978 Vinton.

9,353 13,656 Holmes.. 28,452 28,808 Warren..

25,560 26,541 Huron.. 26,208 29,741 Washington..

29,540 36,279 Jackson 12,719 17,944 Wayne

32,981 32,665 Jefferson. 29,033 26,159 Williams ..

8,018 16,666 Koox..... 28,871 27,893 Woud ....

9,157 16,934 Lake....

14,654 15,590 Wyandotte..... 11,194 15,621 Lawrence.

15,246 23,262 Licking.

38,846 38,048 Total......... 1,980,268 2,343,982 Logan...

19,162 21,013!

....

POPULATION OF MICHIGAN. The United States Marshal bas furpished the Detroit Free Press the results of the census recently taken by his deputies in this State. In two districts the population has been estimated. The figures in the others are reported as official. The table we subjoin shows the results of the census of 1850, and that of 1854, (taken under State authority,) as well as the late returns, and we take it entire from the paper referred to :1860. 1854. 1860.

1860. 1851. 1860. Allegan... 5,125 7,801 16,090 Leelenaw

+

3,201 Alcona

Mapitou.. 2 Alpena

Lapeer..... 7,029 9,704 14,759 Antrim

Lenawee..... 26,372 31,148 38,122 Crawford...

Livingston .... 13,485 14,185 169881 Iosco ....

Manistee....

971 Kalkaskia...

Mackinaw..

1,645 1,960 Missaukie

t

651 Macomb.. 15,530 18,114 22,887 Montmorenci

Marquette..... 136

2,822 Ogema....

Mason

93

882 Oscoda

Mecosta....

997

+ Otsego.

Oecola.... Roscommon.

Michilimackinac* 3,598 Wexford

Midland.

65 T 803 Bay...

3,166 Gladwin Barry. 5,072 7,821 13,871 | Monroe

14,698 18,122 21,595 Berrien 11,417 13,849 22,379 Montcalm

891 2,060 3,974 Branch. 12,472 15,724 20,986 Muskegon..

8,947 Calhount 19,162 22,768 30,747 Newaygo..

510 979 2,218 Cass.... 10,907 13,124 17,728 Lake . Chippewa... 898 1,962 1,603 Oakland...

31,270 31,881 33,274 5,102 8,012 13,915 Oceana

300

1,766 Delta. ....

+
1,192 Ontonagon

389 3,662 4,570 Eaton... 7,058 10,965 16,484 Ottawa

5,587 7,337 13,222 Emmett. 2,679 1,118 Presque Isle... +

26 Genesee... 12,031 15,676 22,497 Saginaw 2,609 1,053 12,700 Gratiot..

+
3,044 Sanilac..... 2,112

3,529 7,659 Grand Traverse 911 1,470 Schoolcraft

16 1

78 16,159 19,188 25,707 Sheboygan

+

515 Houghton 708 2,873 9,190 Shiawassee..

5,230 7,419 12,356 Huron 210 702 3,165 St. Clair....

10,420 16,897 26,623 Ingham.. 8,631 11,222 17,427 St. Joseph. 12,725 15,087 21,103 Ionia, 7,597 10,727 16,685 | Tuscola

291 1,504 4,894 Isabella.....

Van Buren

5,800 7,780 12,226 Clare.....

t
1,443 Washtenawi... 28,567

28,836 39,196
Jackson.... 19,431 21,855 26,706 Wayne ...... 42,756 65,778 75,594
Kalamazoo 13,179 16.893 24,663
Kent

12,016 17,869 30,721 Total ...... 397,654 509,374 749,969

Clinton..

Hillsdale......

The above figures are all taken from the official returns, excepting one district of Washtenaw County and two of Calhoun, in which the census is not yet completed. The estimates of these districts are based upon the proportionate increase of the other districts in the same counties from which returns have been received, and the variation will not probably be one hundred from correct.

These figures make the increase of population in the State since the census of 1850, 352,315. The increase since the State census of 1854 has been 240,595.

* And twenty-one unorganized counties. + Included in Michilimackinac and twenty-one unorganized counties in the census of 1850. Partly estimated.

$ Included in Saginaw at the last census. i Otherwise enumeratod. ( No returns.

** Included in Ottawa at the last census.

14.

2

CENSUS OF BROOKLYN AND KINGS COUNTY. The following are the official returns of the census of the city of Brooklyn and county of Kings, as prepared by Mr. Thomas P. Morris, Superintendent of Kings County Census. The population of 1855 is also given, in order to show the difference as compared with the census of 1860 :Wards. 1855. 1860. Increase. Dec. Wards.

1855. 1860. Increase. Dec 1. 6,441 6,968 527

12,414 15,476 3,062 8,383 9,819 1,436 15.

6,559 10,567 4,008 3. 8,900 10,018 1,187

16.

15,350 21,171 5,821 4. 12,282 11,758

524 | 17.

5,508 7,946 2,428 5. 16,352 17,401 1,049 18.

2,601 4,317 1,716 6.. 18,490 22,720 4,230 19.

6,696 7. 12,523 12,096 427 Flatbush . 3,280

3,470 190 5,318 9,187 3,869 New Lots. 2,261 3,273 1,012 9.

9,133 17,351 8,218 N. Utrecht 2,730 2,781 51 10.

21,749 25,219 3,470 Flatlands. 1,578 1,652 11 22,213 28,826 6,613 Gravesend 1,256 1,286

30 12

6,990 11,086 5,096 ... 14,044 17,982 3,938 Total... 216,355 279,136 62,881 951 The increase in the city of Brooklyn over 1855 is 60,473. The 19th ward having been set off from the old 7th ward, accounts for the apparent decrease in the latter ward; but it is certainly strange that the returns should show a decrease of population in the 4th ward.

8.

13.....

POPULATION OF KANSAS. We publish below the census of the territory, as taken by the United States Marshal, by counties. This does not include the census of any portion of the territory west of the 6th principal meridian, but only of the counties included within the limits of the State of Kansas as prescribed in the Wyandotte Constitution. The population of the Pike's Peak region amounts to about 75,000 in addition :Atchison ........ 7,747 | Dickinson

303 | Marshal...

2,275 Anderson 2,403 Dorn .....

50 Morris...

800 Allen... 3,120 Franklin.... 3,040 Madison

680 Breckinridge 3,163 Godfrey...

1,893 Nemaba....

2,551 Bourbon 6,102 Greenwood...

360 Osage

1,188 Brown... 2,665 Hunter....

194 Pottawatomie... 1,856 Butler.. 640 Johnson. 4,513 Riley

1,260 Coffey.. 2,845 Jefferson

466 Sbawnee

3,405 Chase.. 912 Jackson.. 2,307 Wyandot.....

2,609 Clay... 170 | Leavenworth 12,900 Waubaupsee.

993 Douglas... 9,207 Linn .....

6,347 | Wasbington Doniphan 8,148 Lykins... 5,095 Woodson..

77 Davis.. 1,189 | McGee 1,501 / Wilson....

27

387

Total .

109,401

POPULATION OF LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY. The population of the city of Louisville, as returned by the Assistant Marsbal for taking the eighth census, is as follows :

Ist
2

3d 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th
ward.
ward.

ward. ward. ward, ward. ward. ward. Total. 16,067 7,845 5,360 4,095 4,421 6,662 6,053 14,322 64.825

252 260 840 1,071 810 931 782 455 5,401

Whites .....
Black.......

Total ....

16,319 8,105 6,200 5,166 5,231 7,593 6,836 14,777 70,226

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