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INCREASE OF AMERICAN COMMERCE. The Baltimore Price Current contains the following interesting remarks :
The progress of affairs in tbe Asiatic seas is of such a nature as to open there a brðad field for the employment of American shipping. It bas always been the case, that when American shipping came in competition with that of other countries, on the same footing, it has occupied the whole ground; and in the ports of Asia it has a field for operations of the most favorable description. Our minister at Pekin bas succeeded in breaking down those time-observed dog. mas of exclusiveness which the Chinese had adopted for their mode of action, and opened our resources of commerce to a race numbering one-fourth of the human species; which affords the most favorable augury for the future of American interests, as connected with that empire, which are now in a position that, if properly treated, caunot but result in conferring upon our shipping and pational interests a high degree of prosperity. As a favored nation in Chinese ports, the great and growing carrying trade between British India and China, as well as the isles of the ocean, must fall to its share. A political position so favorable, supported by the great and well-known advantages which American vessels possess in build and sailing qualities, will give us the trade of 600,000,000 of people. The facilities of California for ship-building, when more fully developed, will be found well nigh inexhaustible, and the increasing population of that coast are already making them available. The American shipping interest on the Pacific coast is doubtless destined to exceed that of any other, not only by reason of the carrying trade which Australia, China, Japan, India, the Amoor River, and South America offer to American bottoms, but in the outlets which railroads across the country to the Atlantic States will promote. Again; cre long we shall have the telegraph from Russia by the Amoor and Bebrings Straits, which will connect with the American line in Oregon. The connection of such means of prompt communication, showing the state of the markets at almost all parts o! the world at once, must give a new impulse to operations of shipping; and American genius may, from San Francisco as a central point, comand the whole carrying trade of those countries that border on the Pacific Ocean, and which produce those raw materials that are so rapidly becoming the medium of exchange between the countries of Europe. It will be a lovg time before those countries can find a home market for their vast productions. Every movement thus far towards the improvement of India, the opening of China and Japan, has tended to a large demand for goods in that region, and a more extensive export, not only to Europe, but between the countries of Asia. The extent to which our commerce may be pusbed, the amount of tonnage that may be advantageously employed, and the number of seamen that will be required to carry on this vast commerce successfully, can hardly be estimated. Now, the importance of efficiency on the part of those officers and seamen who are entrusted with valuable ships and cargoes, and still more valuable lives, must be apparent to all, and there appears to be no more effectual means of securing that efficiency than the hearty co-operation of our merchants, ship.owners, and underwriters, in the maintenance of cautical schools, and the establishment of an examination system, whereby the real merits of each commander and officer may be known. The moral force of such a system will soon overcome the reluctance thai may be expected to exist on the part of commanders and clicers to pass the ordeal, and would gradually, but most assuredly, produce a body of welleducated seamen, eficient oslicers, and able commanders in our mercantile marine, and thus reduce the number of shipwrecks and marine disasters, rendering life and property more safe at sea.
We venture these remarks, hoping that they will be attended with due effet in awakening a desire for improvement and efficiency on the part of those wbo are desirous of becoming commanders or oficers in our rapidly increasing mer. cantile marine, and to induce a respectable class of American youth to join the sea service, both of which are essential to our commercial prosperity.
THE BOOK TRADE.
1.--The Works of Charles Lamb. In four volumes. New Edition. Boston:
Crosby, Nichols, Lee & Co.
These four elegant volumes, which are all that could be desired in way of typographical art, comprise the complete literary remains of Charles LAMB, the eminent essayist, satirist, and critic The first two volumes contain the letters of CHALES LAMB, together with Sir Tuomas Talfourd's sketch of his life. The third volume comprises LAMB'S “ Essay of Elia,” and the fourth his miscellaneous articles in prose and verse. There is always something fresh and novel pervading the writings of this eccentric man, read them so often as we may; a simplicity and yet a nicety of discrimination which is life like and conveys a prolound knowledge of human nature Take, for instance, his satire of a “ Poor Relation," and we find something both pungent and critical. relation is the most irrelevant thing in nature-a piece of impertinent correspondency-an odious approximation--a preposterous shadow, lengthening in the noop-lide of our prosperity--an unwelcome remembrancer—a perpetually recurring mortification-a mote in your eye-a triumph to your enemy, an apology to your friends—the one thing not needful--the hail in harvest--the ounce of sour in a pound of sweet. He is known by his knock. Your heart telleth you, • That is Mr. A rap between familiarity and respect, that demands, and at the same time seems to despair of, entertainment. He entereth smiling, and--embarrassed. He boldeth out his hand to you to shake, and-draweth it back again. He casually looketh in about dinner-time--when the table is full. He offereth to go away, seeing you have company--but is induced to stay. He filleth a chair, and your visitor's two children are accommodated at a side table. He never cometh upon open days, when your wife says with some complacency, • My dear, perhaps Mr. will drop in to dag.' He remembereth birth-days --and professet hi he is fortunate to have stumbled upon one. Ile declareth against fish, the turbot being small-yet suffereth himself to be importuned into a slice against his first resolution. He sticketh by the port, yet will be prevailed upon to empty the remaining glass of claret if a stranger press it upon him. He is a puzzle to the servants, who are fearful of being too obsequions, or not civil enough to him. The guests think they have seen him before. Every one speculateth upon his condition, and the most part take him to be a tide waiter. He calleth you by your Christian name, to imply that his other is the same with your own. He is too familiar by half, yet you wish he had less diffidence. With half the familiarity, he might pass for a casual dependent; with more boldness, he would be in no danger of being taken for what he is. He is too humble for a friend; yet taketh on him more state than befits a client. He is a worse guest than a country tenant, inasmuch as le bringeth up no rent--yet 'tis odd, from his garb and demeanor, that your guests take him for one. He recollects your grandfather, and will thrust in some mean and unimportant anecdote of the family. He knew it when it was not quite so flourishing as · be is blest in seeing it now?' He revireth past situations, to institute what he calleth--favorable comparisons. With a reflecting sort of congratulation he will inquire the price of your furniture, and insults you with a special commendation of your window curtains. He is of opivion that the urn is the elegant shape, but after all, there was something more comfortable about the old tea-kettle--which you must remember. He dare say you must find a great convenience in having a carriage of your own, and appealeth to your lady if it is not so.
His memory is unseasonable ; his compliments perverse; his talk a trouble; his stay pertinacious; and when he goeth away, you dismiss his chair into a corner, as precipi. tately as posssible, and feel fairly rid of two nuisances.”
2.- Steam for the Million. A Popular Treatise on Steam, and its Application
to the Useful Arts, especially to Navigation. Intended as an Instructor for Young Seamen, Mechanics' Apprentices. Academic Students, Passengers in Mail-steamers, etc. By J. H. WARD, Commander U. S. Navy. Author of “Naval Tactics.” etc., etc. New and Revised Edition. 8vo., pp. 120. New York: D. Van Nostrand.
Commander Ward is fortunate in having filled a void long felt, with a work on “Steam for the Million.” The universal application of steam to all the bigbways and byways of commerce requires of every one who pretends to a usefal education an intelligent appreciation of the power, par excellence, which moves with the genius of the age. The principles of the application of steam are now required of a useful clerk, no less than of a mechanics' apprentice ; and a sea man(?) without this knowledge only seeks subordinate employment. And tot the traveling public, daily experience testifies to the importance of an educated judgment in the application of steam. The book before us is emphatically one that he who travels may read." and gain knowledge of the power which impels him.
Divested of all useless technicalities, it abounds in practical matter of interest to every one, no matter włat his sphere. And no one can read it without becoming convinced that it contains much valuable instruction, and is the work of an experienced utilitarian. All the more important problems on the practical application of steam are here brought together in a concise mono. graph, equally useful to the student beginning this study, and to the engineer wbó bas but leisure to refresh his memory; as it contains all that it is important to know, without special details. It is well illustrated by pumerous wood cuts.
3.- The Housekeepers' Encyclopedia of Useful Information for the Househeeper
in all branches of Cooking and Domestic Economy; containing the first scien. tific and reliable rules for putting up all kinds of hermetically sealed Fruits, with or without sugar, in tin cans or common bottles ; also rules for preserv. ing Fruits in American and French styles; with tried receipts for making domestic Wines, Catsups, Syrups, Cordials, etc.; and pratical directions for the cultivation of Vegetables, Fruits, and Flowers, destruction of Insects, etc., etc. By Jirs. E. F. Ilaskell. 12mo., pp. 415. New York: D. Appleton & Co.
The author has endeavored to make this work a complete encyclopedia for the housekeeper, going minutely into many things which, to an experienced person, may seem superfluous, but which are all in themselves useful. It is decidedly American in its rulings, and, to our mind, the best book of the kind published in the country.
4.–Odd people; being a popular description of Singular Races of Men. By
CAPTAIN MAYNE REID, author of the “ Desert Home." The Bush Boys," &c. With illustrations. 12.no., pp. 461. Boston: Ticknor & Fields.
This volume will be found to contain interesting accounts of different singular races of men spoken of by travelers in different parts of the world. Captain Reid's genius as a narrator is well established, hence the accounts given here are from the best autbority and prepared with much care, giving descriptions of the different curious races, how they exist, customs, appearance, etc., without romancing, in a clear and straightforward style. To a young lady its value will rate ias so much gold.
5.-- Greek Grammar, for the use of Schools and Colleges. By JAMES HADLEY,
Professor in Yale College. 12mo., pp. 366. New York: D. Appleton & Co.