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In literary qualifications the appointees from Massachusetts were the most sucessful, only 1 out of 43 failing. Nevada lost 6 out of 7; Kansas, 3 out of 6; Delaware, 5 out of 11; Texas, 3 out of 8; and Alabama, 11 out of 32, on this account.
In connection with the presentation of facts respecting the education of man in his normal condition, an attempt has been made to present tables and facts respecting the philanthropic and educational institutions existing in the United States to ameliorate, improve, instruct, or restrain the many forms of physical, mental, and moral distortion or deficiency which are comprehended under the terms deaf-mute, blind, idiot and imbecile, insane, and inebriate asylums, reform schools, and prisons.
EDUCATION OF THE DEAF, DUMB, AND BLIND. The disadvantages suffered by these classes in the struggles of life carly attracted the attention of humane educators in America. The statistics of the institutions established in their interest appear in the accompanying tables. I regret that those relating to the blind, after all our endeavors, are so incomplete.
The Bureau is under special obligations to Dr. E. M. Gallaudet, president of the National Deaf-mute College, for assistance in perfecting the table in regard to institutions for the education of the deaf and dumb.
There is great satisfaction in knowing that so much is so well done for these classes. It was my purpose not only to present the facts with regard to their education in schools, but in reference to all associations and institutions designed to aid them, after leaving school, in discharging the duties of the various relations of life. What a contrast is here presented between Christian civilization and barbarism, the latter casting them out as waste humanity, the former devising for them instrumentalities and methods by which to overcome the disabilities resulting from the loss of sight, hearing, and speech! Barbarism destroyed them; Christian civilization builds for them churches. *
* St. Ann's Free Church for deaf-mutes and their friends, in the city of New York, has for eighteen years been trying to improve the temporal and spiritual condition of those deaf-mutes who have finished their education at the various institutions. It has been the means of providing employment for a large number. It maintains one service, conducted entirely in the sign-language, every Sunday afternoon. Its deaf-mute literary association holds Thursday evening meetings for the greater part of the year. In various other ways this church, under the rectorship of Rev. Thomas Gallaudet, D. D., seeks to educate deaf-mutes toward a high standard of personal character. This church has been instrumental in establishing weekly Sunday services under the pastoral care of Rev. Francis J. J. Clerc, D. D., in St. Stephen's Church, Philadelphia, and under the direction of Mr. Samuel A. Adams, deaf-mute, in Grace Church, Baltimore. It also provides monthly services for deaf-mutes in St. Paul's Church, Albany, and quarterly services in the Chapel of the Good Shepherd, Boston. Besides this, it offers occasional services to deaf-mutes in several other cities of our country. In these labors for the religious instruction of deaf-mutes, Rev. Dr. Gallaudet is assisted by the Rev. Stephen F. Holmes, to whom he has imparted a knowledge of the sign-language.
The schools for the deaf, dumb, and blind are fast passing out of the class known as charitable, and becoming part and parcel of the systems of public education. It is hoped that ere long every State will have made ample provision for the establishment and conduct of these schools, and that no one suffering either of these disabilities will fail to receive their benefits.
On the 26th of September, 1870, the subject of establishing an institution for the deaf and dumb in Oregon was introduced into the house of representatives of that State, and action had looking to the organization of such an institution. *
SCHOOLS FOR IDIOTS AND IMBECILES.
Seven of these, it will be observed, are enumerated. These illustrate some of the most striking triumphs of Christian education. They will answer the inquiries of those who have written to me desiring the location of these institutions. The work they do may well be studied by every philosophical educator. How wonderful, how nicely adapted, the process by which the child, dearly beloved by the parent, yet so devoid of reason as to be loathsome in its uncleanliness and senseless habits, is brought to a care of self and the observance of neatness, and often enabled to read and write, and to participate in various simple and useful idustries !
INSANE ASYLUMS. I am indebted to Dr. Nichols, superintendent of the Government Insane Asylum, near this city, for the statistics of these institutions. Does any one ask what a report on education has to do with insanity ? Considering the mistaken notions which prevail in regard to education, I should not be surprised at such an inquiry. I would recall, however, the motto, universally adopted as indicating the object of education, “A sound mind in a sound body.” Does any one presume that insanity is wholly the result of natural causes beyond the reach of the influences of home, of school, and of society' Rather, will not a careful investigation show a very considerable share of the cases of insanity traceable primarily to causes within the control of education, in its large sense? Whence comes dementia ? Why so few of our insane from the entirely
* Dr. Isaac Lewis Peet, principal of the New York Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, in a recent article very pertinently calls attention to the importance of educating deaf-mutes, as illustrated in a recent case of the trial of one of this class for murder. He thinks the question of the moral responsibility of an uneducated person, born deaf and dumb, is one of the subtlest in metaphysics. There are peculiar difficulties connected with the subject, growing out of the extremely limited communication possible through an interpreter, the utter ignorance on the part of the deaf-mute of language, and of either human or divine law. The natural resentments of an uneducated deaf-mute are peculiarly dangerous; and every one ought to see that such persons are sent to institutions where they may be taught their relations to God and man at least, and, if possible, as much more as shall render them in some measure capable of discharging the ordinary duties of good citizens.
ignorant class? Why did so few slaves become lunatics? Why are so many persons of higher intellectual attainments found among the insane! I admit that the connection between cause and effect in these cases has not been sufficiently brought out. But this is a reason for giving the subject immediate attention, rather than for delaying it. Those who are erecting school-houses, and regulating the school habits of the young, have need that these facts should be before them, and to consider whether the play-grounds, the character of the buildings, their comfort, ventilation, cheerfulness, the motives and tasks set before children, have or have not an adaptation to preserve the mind in its soundness, or if it has abnormal tendencies to overcome them, and save the family from the sad effect of the dethroned reason, and the State or family from the expense of the support of a lunatic. No educator has sufficiently apprehended and set forth the subtle connection between the mind and the body, and the effect of the one upon the condition of the other. If he would adjust the processes of education most correctly to man in his normal condition, he may wisely consult every abnormal development within his observation. Indeed, the recovering process, which brings the lost reason back to itself, throws the light of some most important suggestions upon the path of the teacher.
No attempt is made in this report at this investigation. I have sought simply to facilitate the efforts of educators at home and abroad, who are disposed to pursue these inquiries, by bringing together the list of institutions of this class, and a few leading facts connected with them.
ASYLUMS FOR INEBRIATES
are surprising their friends with the results they accomplish. The one at Binghamton, New York, is the most noted. Its report for the year 1869 showed 244 patients admitted during the year; discharged, 271; remaining on the 1st of January, 55. The officers observe in the last report, “Of our confidence in the success of the asylum as a curative institution, we have heretofore spoken. That confidence remains unshaken. As a pioneer in a great experiment-an experiment of deeper interest to the family, to society, and to the State than any other now awaiting the final judgment of the public—it is worthy of a full and fair trial.”
The statistics of these institutions are drawn from the able report of Dr. Wines, Secretary of the New York Prison Association, excepting where they have been modified by the reports received in this office. They point to the great sores that are forming on the body politic, which, so far, have been imperfectly dealt with or understood. They present a sad commentary on the results of parental neglect and city vagabondism. They are a standing argument to enforce the duty of education by the State. They tell how soon parental selfishness, neglect, vice, and crime would raise up a class destructive of life, property, and all social good. It is not sufficient to say that the general good requires this method of treating javenile criminals; the good of every child demands it. They, moreover, point to the defects in our private and public school systems, and suggest important revisions calculated to make their benefits more universal. The success of reformatories already estab. lished would seem to overcome objections and enforce the economy and expediency of their establishment in connection with all large centrali. zations of population.
It is not difficult for any one to see that the prisou stands over against the school. Vice and crime are readily traced to youthful neglect or misconduct. The county or city receives very little admonition from its jail, and the State from its prison. To-day the child is at home or school; to-morrow the man in the dungeon; and the teacher and pupil have learned no lesson.
RELATION OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT TO EDUCATION.
What is now presented as the annual report can be considered only as an initiative effort, either in respect to the body of the information or the tables included. The relation of the National Government to edu. cation with many is not recognized because their attention has not been directed to it. There are, however, certain things which the National Government may and should do in this relation, so palpable that their statement is sufficient to secure almost universal assent:
1. It may do all things required for education in the Territories. 2. It may do all things required for education in the District of Columbia. 3. It may also do all things required by its treaties with and its obligations to the Indians. 4. The National Government may also do all that its international relations require in regard to education. 5. The National Government may use either the public domain or the money received from its sale for the benefit of education. 6. The National Government may know all about education in the country, and may communicate of what it knows at the discretion of Congress and the Executive. 7. The Government should provide a national educational office and an officer, and furnish him clerks, and all means for the fulfillment of the national educational obligations.
The present opportunities of this Bureau are utterly inadequate to the proper discharge of these duties. I, therefore, recommend
First. An increase of the clerical force of this Bureau, to enable it to extend, subdivide, and systematize its work, so that its correspondence, domestic and foreign, and the collection of statisties, may each be in charge of a person specially fitted for the same.
Second. That appropriate quarters be furnished, so that the plan of making and preserving a collection of educational works, reports, pamphlets, apparatus, maps, &c., may be carried out with facility.
Third. That increased means be furnished for the publication of facts, statistics, and discussions, to meet the constantly increasing demand.
Fourth. That the educational facts necessary for the information of Congress be required by law to be reported through this Bureau in regard to the District of Columbia and the Territories, and all national expenditures in aid of education.
Fifth. In view of the specially limited financial resources and the great amount of ignorance in portions of our country, and the immediate necessity for adequate instrumentalities and opportunities for elementary education to the people of those sections, and the anxieties awakened by impending Asiatic immigration, that the net income from the sale of the public lands be divided annually pro rata among the people in the respective States, Territories, and the District of Columbia.
My sense of the incompleteness of this report is most painful. Should it prove the beginning of something which shall grow satisfactorily toward perfection, this labor, I shall hope, will not be in vain.
For whatever value it has I am specially indebted to the very competent labor of those who have assisted me in its preparation, who have not made the customary office hours the limit of their endeavors, but have willingly done their utmost in the work assigned to them.
The courtesy and energy with which the Public Printing Office is conducted secure its issue promptly, in spite of the delays in furnishing manuscript, incident to my want of clerical force, in connection with the other annual executive reports. For statistical matter I am especially indebted to General Francis A. Walker, Superintendent of the Census; Hon. Edward Young, Superintendent of the Bureau of Statistics; and to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.
Whatever measure of success the office has been able to attain since I entered upon these duties, I should be wanting in common honesty not to acknowledge that it is largely due to your thorough appreciation and prompt consideration of the subjects and duties in hand, and the uniform sympathy and coöperation of the President. I have the bonor.to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOHN EATON, JR,
Commissioner. Hon. J. D. Cox,
Secretary of the Interior.