« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
whole proclamation. Whenever they had the chance, however,
the Germans hunted down the Herero, and thousands perished
in the Omaheke desert, across which numbers succeeded in passing to British territory near Ngami.
0n the day following the Lcsue of von Trotha‘s proclamation to the Herero, Le. on the 3rd of October 1904, Hendrik Witboi sent a formal declaration of war to the Germans. Hendrik had
helped to supprer the Bondelzwarts rising, and had received a
German decoration for his services, and his hostility is said to
have been kindled by the superscssion of Colonel Leutwein, for
whom he entertained a great admiration. The \\'ith0is were joined by other llottentot tribes, and their first act was to murder some sixty German settlers in the Gibeon district. Both
British and liner farmers were spared—the Hottcntots in this
matter following the example of the Herero. In November,
considerable reinforcements having come from Germany, the
“'itbois were attacked, and Hendrik's headquarters, Reitmorqt,
captured. Another defeat was inflicted on Hendrik in January
1905, but, lacking ammunition and water, the Germans could not
follow up their victory. As in Damaraland, the warfare in Namaqualand now assumed a guerrillacharacter, and the-Germans found it almost impossible to meet theirelusive enemy, whilesmall detachments were often surprised and sometimes annihilated. In May 1905 von Trotha tried the effect on the Hottentots of another of his proclamations. He invited them to surrender, adding that in the contrary event all rebels wouldbe eaterminated. A price was at the same time put on the heads of Hendrik Witboi and other chiefs. This proclamation was unheeded by the Hottentots, who were in fact continuing the war with rifles and ammunition seized from the Germans, and replenishing their stock with cattle taken from the same source. In the north, however, Samuel Mahercro had fled to British territory, and the resistance of the Herero was beginning to collapse. Concentration camps were established in which some thousands of Herero women and children were cared for. Meanwhile, the administration of von Trotha, who had assumed the governorship as well as the command of the troops, was severely criticized by the civilian population, and the non-success of the operations against the Hottentots provoked strong military criticism. In August r905 Colonel (afterwards General) Icutwein, who had returned to Germany, ‘formally resigned the governomhip of the protectorate, and Herr von Lindequist, late German consul-general at Cape Town, was nominated as his successor. Von Trotba, who had publicly criticized Prince Btilow's order to repeal the Herero proclamation, was superseded. He had in the summer of 1905 instituted a series of “drives” against the Witbois, with no particular results. Hendrik always evaded the columns and frequently attacked them in the rear.
In November 1905 von Lindequist arrived at Windhoek. The new governor issued a general amnesty to the Herero, and set aside two large reserves for those who surrendered. His conciliatory policy was in the end successful, and the Ovampo, who threatened to give trouble, were kept in hand. The task of pacifying Damaraland was continued throughout 1006, and by the close of that yearabout 16,000 Hererohad been established in the reserves. Some ~tooo had sought refuge in British territory, while the number who had perished may be estimated at between 20,000 and 30,000.
In Namaqualand von Lindequist found an enemy still unbroken. On the 3rd of November, however, Hendrik “'itboi died, aged seventy-five, and his son and successor Samuel Isaac
giant," Witbol shortly afterwards surrendered, and the "hint hostility of the tribe ceased. Morenga now became
the chief of the rebel Hottentots,nnd “drives " against him were organizer]. Early in May 1006 an encounter between Moreaga and a German column was fought close to the British 'rontier 0f the Bechuanalnnd protectorate. Morenga fled, was iursued across the frontier, and wounded, but esc'aped. On he 16th of May he was found hiding by British patrols and nterned. Other Hottentnt (lliefS continued the conflict, greatly tided by the immense difficulty the Germans had in transporting upplics; to remedy which defect the building of a nil!”
from Luderitz Bay to Kubub was begun early in 1906. A camel transport corps was also organized, and Boer auxiliaries engaged. Throughout the later half of 1006 the Hottentots maintained the. struggle, the Karas mountains forming a stronghold from which their dislodgment was extremely difficult. Many of their leaders and numbers of the tribamen had a considerable strain of white (chiefly Dutch) blood and were fairly educated men, with a knowledge not only of native, but European ways; facts which helped to make them formidable opponents. Gradually the resistance of the Hottentots was overcome, and in December 1906 the Bondelzwnrts again surrendered. Other tribes continued the fight for months longer, but by March 1907 it was found possible to reduce the troops in the protectorate to about 5000 men. At the height of the campaign the Germans had 19,000 men in the field.
In August loo7 renewed alarm was created by the escape of Morenga from British territory. The Cape government, regarding the chief as a political refugee, had refused to cxtrndilc him and he had been assigned a residence near Upington. This place he left early in August and, eluding the frontier guards, re-cntcred German territory. In September, however, he was again on the British side of the border. Meantime a force' of the Cape Mounted Police under Major F. A. H. Eliott had been organized to effect his arrest. Summoned to surrender, .Morenga fled into the Kalahari Desert. Eliott’s force of sixty men pursued him through a waterless country, covering 80 m. in 24 hours. When overtaken (September 21st), Morenga, with ten followers, was holding a kopje and fired on the advancing troops. After a sharp engagement the chief and five of his men were killed, the British casualties being one killed and one wounded. The death of Morenga removed a serious obstacle to the complete pacification of the protectorate. Military operations continued, however, during 1908. Herr von Lindequist, being recalled to Berlin to become undersecretary in the colonial office, was succeeded as governor (May r907) by Herr von Schuckmann. In 1908 steps were taken to establish German authority in the Caprivi enclave, which up to that time had been neglected by the colonial authorities.
The discovery of diamonds in the Luderitz Bay district in July 1908 caused a rush of treasure-seekers. The diamonds were found mostly on the surface in a sandy soil and were of small size. The stones resemble Brazilian MW diamonds. By the end of the year the total yield was 22M over 39,000 carats. One of the difficulties encountered in developing the field was the great scarcity of fresh water. During 1909 various companies were formed to exploit the diamondiferous area. The first considerable packet of diamonds from the colony ruched Germany in April iooo. The output for the year was valued at over £1,0oo,ooo.
The Okarongo Riva (1861') and Notes of Travel (187 ). See also Sir E. Alexander, An I'IxPedilion of Discovery into i _ Inkn'or of Africa (London, 1838). Reports on the German colomm are published by the British foreign office. e Kriegskarle van Dndulh Sfldweslufn'ko (Berlin, 1904), in nine sheets on a scale of I : 800,000 will be found useful. (F. R. C.)
GERMANTOWN, a residential district and former suburb, now the Twentysecond Ward, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on \Vissahickon Creek, in the N. part of the city. It is served by the Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia 8: Reading railways. There are many old colonial houses and handsome modern residences along Main Street (the old Germantown Road or Avenue). Prominent among the historic houses is Cliveden, or the “ Chew House," built about 1761 by Benjamin Chew (1712—1810), who was chief-justice of Pennsylvania in 1774—1777 and was imprisoned as a Loyalist in 1777, and whose home during the battle of Germantown (see below) was occupied by British troops. The well-preserved Morris House (1772) was the headquarters of General Howe at the close of the battle, and in 1793, when Germantown, owing to the yellow fever in Philadelphia, was the temporary capital of the United States, it was oceupied by President Washington. Three doors above stood until £904 the Ashmead House, used for a time by Count Nicholas Lewis Zinzendorf and his daughters for their Moravian school, which was removed to Bethlehem. In the same street, opposite Indian Queen Lane, is the old \Vistcr Mansion, built as 11 country-seat in 1744 and occupied by British officers during the War of Independence. In another old house (now Nos. 5275—5277), John Fanning Watson (1779—1860), the annalist of Philadelphia, did most of his literary work. Just outside the ward limits, in what has since become a part of Fair-mont Park, is the house in which David Rittenhouse, the astronomer, was born; it stands on Monmhore Creek or Paper Mill Run, in what was long called Roxborough (now the arst ward of Philadelphia). In this vicinity the first paper mill in America was erected in 1690 by a company of which William Rittenhouse, David's great~grandfather, was the leadin member. The King of Prussia Inn, built about 1740, and the Iermaid Hotel, as old or older, are interesting survivals of the inns and taverns of old Germantown. The Germantown Academy was built in 1760, and after the battle of Germantown was used by the British as a hospital. In Germantown are also a Friends‘ (orthodox) school, a Friends' free library, and the Germantown branch of the Philadelphia public library. The first school in Germantown was established about 1701, and for the first eighteen years was under the mastershipof Francis Daniel Pastorius(1651—r7ro),theleaderin founding the town, who lived in a house that stood on thesiteofthepresent First Methodist Episcopal church, High Street and Main Street. He compiled a primer which was the first school book produced in the state; with three others be drafted and signed in r688 what seems to have been the first public protest made in America against slavery; and he is celebrated in Whittier's Pennsylvania Pilgrim. Later the same school passed to Christopher Dock (d. 1771), who in 1770 published an essay on teaching (written in 1750), which is said to have been the first book on pedagogy published in America. The first Bible printed in America in any European language was published in Germantown in 1743 by Christopher Saucr (d. 1758), a preacher of the German Baptist Brethren, who in 1739 established Germantown’s first newspaper, TIL: High German Pennsylvania H irlvri'an, or Colm!ian of I mpomml New: from (he Kingdom of Nature and of the Church. His grandsons are said to have cast about 1772 the first American printing type. The Friends were the first sect to erect ameeting-houseof their own (about 1693). The Mennonites built a log meeting-house in 1709, and their present stone church was built in 1770. The town hall of Germantown was used as a hospital during the last three years ofthe Civil War. In Market Square a soltlicrs' monument was erected in 1883. The Site and Relic Society of Germantown maintains a museum of relics. Many of the early settlers were linen weavers, and Cnrmantown ltill manufactures textiles, knit goods and yarns.
Germztntmvn was founded in October 1683 by thirteen families lrom Creteld. Germany, under the leadership of Francis Danid
Pastorius. The township, as originally laid out, contained four distinct villages known as Germantown, Cresheim, Sommrrhousen and Crefield. Crcsheim was later known as Mount Airy, and Sommerhousen and Crcficld became known as Chestnut Hill. The borough of Germantown was incorporated in 1689. For many years it was a straggling village extending about ant along Main Street. Its growth was more rapid from the middle of the rSth century. In 1789 a motion for the permanent location of the national capital at Germantown was carried in the Senate, and the some measure passed the House, amended only with respect to the temporary government of the ceded district; but the Senate killed the bill by voting to postpone further consideration of it until the next session. Germantorrn was annexed to Philadelphia in 18 4.
Ballle of Grrmanlown.—This famous encounter in the American War of Independence was fought on the 4th of October 1771. After the battle of Branrlywine (11.11.) and the occupation of Philadelphia, the British force commanded by Sir W. Hone encamped at Germantown, where Washington determined to attack them. The Americans advanced by two roads, General Sullivan leading the column on the right and General Green: that on the left. Washington himself accompanied Sullivan. with whom were Stirling (an officer who claimed to be earl of that name) and Anthony Wayne. The right at first met Iith success, driving the British advanced troops back on the main body near the Chew House. Colonel Musgrave,ol thcaoth Foot, threw a portion of his regiment into this house, and General Agnew came up with his command. The Americans under Stirling attempted to dislodge Musgrave, thus losing time and alarming part of Sullivan’s advance who had pushed farther forward in the fog. General Greene on the left was even less fortunate. Meeting with unexpected opposition at the first point of attack his troops were thrown into Confusion and compelled to retreat. One of his brigades extended itself to the right wing, and by opening fire on the Chew House causc-i Wayne to retreat, and presently both of the American columns retired rapidly in the direction of their camp. The surprise had failed, with the loss to Washington’s army of 673 men as against 500 on the side of the British. The British General Agnew and the American General Nash were both mortally wounded. In December Washington went into wintér quarters at Valley Forge,4om. west of Philadelphia. TheBritish wintcrrd in and around the city.
See N. H. Keyser, " Old Historic Germantown," in the Proudl'ltl and Addresses of the Pennsylvania-German Society (lanasirr 1906); S. W. Pennypacker, The Sellkmen! a] Grrmoalm. P0110} rania, and Ill: Beginning 0 German Enrigmlion lo Norlh Ammo (Philadelphia, 1899), and .. F. Hotchkin, Ann'rrr! and Modal Germanium, Mount Airy and Chestnut Hill (Philadelphia, 1889).
GERIANY (Ger. Drulsrllland), or, more properly, Tm: GU!!! Eurnzz (Deulsclter Reich), a country of central Europe. TR territories occupied by peoples of distinctively Teutonic rm and language are commonly designated as German, and in this sense may be taken to include, besides Germany proper (tht subject of the present article), the German-speaking sections 0‘ Austria, Switurland and Holland. But Germany, or the German empire, as it is now understood, was formed in 1531 by virtue of treaties between the North German Confederation and the South German states, and by thc.acquisition. in t5! peace of Frankfort (May 10, 1871), of Alsacelnrraine, and embraces all the countries of the former German Confederation. with the exception of Austria, Luxemburg, Limburg and Lir<§~ tenstcin. The sole addition to the empire proper since that date is the island of Heligoland, ceded by Great Britain in 160% but Germany has acquired extensive colonies in Africa and lb! Pacific (see below, Colanicr).
The German empire extends from 47° r6' to 55° 53' N , and from 5’ 51' to 12° 52' E. The eastern provinces project so far that the extent of German territory is much greater from south west to north-east than in any other direction. Tibit is 815 Itfrom Meta, whereas Haderslcben, in Schleswig, is only 540 B‘from the Lake of Constance. The actual difierence in that between the eastern and western points is 1 hour and 8 minutfli mt the empire observes but one time—r hour E. of Greenwich. l he empire is bounded on the 5.5. and S. by Austria and Switzerand (for 1659 m.), on the S.W. by France (242 111.), on the W. W Luxemburg, Belgium and Holland (together 558 m.). The ength of German coast on the North Sea or German Ocean is :03 m., and on the Baltic 927 m., the intervening land boundary in the north of Schlcswig being only 47m. The eastern boundary 5 with Russia 843 m. The total length of the frontiers is thus i 569 m. The area, including rivers and lakes but not the he}: )l’ lagoons on the Baltic coast, is 208,830 sq. m., and the populaion (1905) 60,641,278. In respect of its area, the German ~mpire occupied in 1909 the third place among European ‘otintrits, and in point of population the second, coming in point )f area immediately after Russia and Austria-Hungary, and n population next to Russia.
[’01de Dirisionr.—The empire is composed of the following wenty-six states and divisions: the kingdoms of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony and Wiirttemberg; the grand-duchies of Haden, Hrsse, Mecklenburg'Schwcrin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, ftldenhurg and Saxe-Weimar; the duchics of Anhnlt, Brunswick, Saxeer‘tltenburg, Saxc-Coburg-Gotha and Sare-Meiningen; the )lilltlpallllcs of Lippe-Detmold, Reuss-Greiz, Reuss-Schleiz, Schaumburg-Lippe, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburgmndershausen and Waldeck-Pyrmont; the free towns of Bremen, Hamburg and Lllbeck, and the imperial territory of \lsace-Lorraine.
Besides these political divisions there are certain parts of Germany which, not conterminous with political boundaries, 'emin appellations derived either from former tribal settlements air from divisions of the old Holy Roman Empire. These are Franconia (Franken), which embraces the districts of Bamberg, Schweinfurt and Wllrzburg on the upper Main; Swabia (Schwaben), in which is included \Vllrttcmberg, parts of Bavaria and Baden and Hohcnzollern; the Palatinate (Pfalz), embracing. Bavaria west of the Rhine and the contiguous portion of Baden; Rliincland, applied to Rhenish Prussia, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt and parts of Bavaria and Baden; \"ogtland,l the mountainous rountry lying in the south-west corner of the kingdom of Saxony; Lusatia (Lausitz), the eastern portion of the kingdom of Saxony and the adjacent portion of Prussia watered by the upper Spree; Thuringia (Thilringen), the country lying south of the Harz Mountains and including the Saxon duchies; East Friesland tOst Friesland), the country lying between the lower course of the Weser and the Ems, and Westphalia (Westfalen), the fertile tilt-.in lying north and west of the Harz Mountains and extending to the North Sea and the Dutch frontier.
C ml and Islands—The length of the coast-line is considerably less than the third part of the whole frontier. The coasts are shallow, and deficient in natural ports, except on the east of Stillt‘Sng-llolSICln, where wide bays encroach upon the land, giving access to the largest vest-ls, so that the great naval harbour could be constructed at Kiel. With the exception of those on the east coast of Schleswig-Holstein, all the important trading ports of Germany are river ports, such as Emden,Bremcn, Hamburg, Ltlbeck, Stettin, Danzig, Konigsberg, Memel. A great difference, however, is to be remarked between the coasts of the North Sea‘and those of the Baltic. On the former, where the sea has broken up the ranges of dunes formed in bygone times, and divided them into separate islands, the mainland has to be protected by massive dikes, while the Frisian Islands are being gradually washed away by the waters. On the coast of liast Friesland there are now only seven of these islands, of which Nordcrney is best known, while of the North Frisian Islands, on the western coast of Schleswig, Sylt is the most considerable. Besides the ordinary waste of the shores, there have been extensive inundations by the sea. within the historic period, the gulf of the Dollart having been so caused in the year 1176. Sands surround the whole coast of the North Sea to such an extent that the entrance to the ports is not practicable without the aid of pilots. Heligoland is a rocky island, but it
‘ tie. the territory once under the jurisdiction of an imperial Vagl or advocate: (see Anvocarx).
also has been considerably reduced by the sea. The tides rise to the height of r: or r3 ft. in the Jade Bay and at Bremerhaven, and 6 or 7 it. at Hamburg. The coast of the Baltic, on the other hand, possesses few islands, the chief being Alsen and Fehmarn off the coast of Schlesw'lg-Holsteln, and Rtlgen off Pomerania. It has no extensive sands, though on the whole very flat. The Baltic has no perceptible tides; and a great part of its coast-line is in winter covered with ice, which also so blocks up the harbours that navigation is interrupted for several months every year. Its hafls fronting the mouths of the large rivers must be regarded as lagoons or extensions of the river beds, not as bays. The Pommersche or Oder Hall is separated from the sea by two islands, so that the river flows out by three mouths, the middle one (Swine) being the most considerable. The Frische Hall is formed by the Nogat, a branch of the Vistuln, and by the Pregel, and communicates with the sea by means of the Pillauer Tief. The Kurische Hafl receives the Mcmel, called Niemen in Russia, and has its outlet in the extreme north at Memel. Long narrow alluvial strips called Neknmgen, lie between the last two hails and the Baltic. The Baltic coast is further marked by large indentations, the Gulf of Lllbcck, that of Pomerania, east of Rugen, and the semicircular Bay of Danzig between the promontories of Rixhoft and Brilsterort. The German coasts are well provided with lighthouses.
Sarfm.-—ln respect of physical structure Germany is divided into two entirely distinct portions, which bear to one another a ratio of about 3 to 4. The northern and larger part may be described as a uniform plain. South and central (aermany, on the other hand, is very much diversified in scenery. it possesses large plateaus, such as that ol Bavaria, which stretches away from the foot of the Alps, fertile low plains like that intersected by the Rhine. mountain chains and isolated groups of mountains. comparatively low in height, and so situated as not seriously to interfere with communication either by road or by railway.
Bavaria 'u the only division of t e country that includes within it It? partof the Alps, the Austro-Bavarian_frontier running along the ri ge of the Nort ern Tirolese or Bavarian Alps. The Mm loftiest I: of this group, the Zugspitze g7 m. S. of “i " Munich , is 9738 ft. in height, being the big est summit mm in the empire. The upper German plain s opin northwards from the Bavarian Alps is watered by the vh, the lsar and the Inn tributaries of the Danube, all three risin beyond the German territory. This lain is aeparat on the west from the Swiss plain by the Lake orConstance (Bodensee, I306 ft. above sea-level), and on the east from the undulating grounds of
Austria by the Inn. The average height of the plain may be estimated at about r800 ft., the valley of the Danube on its north ft. (at Ulm) to 920 ft. (at Passau). The
border being from two plain is not very fert' e. In the upper part of the plain, towards the Alps, there are several lakes. the aqrcst being the Ammersee. the Wurmsee or Starnberger See and the Chiemsee. Many portions of the plain are covered by moors and swam of In e extent, called Moore. The left or northern bank of the anube rom R ensburg downwards presents a series of granitic rocks called the avarian Forest (Ba rischer Wald), which must be regarded as a branch of the Bohemian orest (Bohrner Wald). The latter is a range of wooded heights on the'frontier of Bavaria and Bohemia, coo?ying the least known and least frequented regions of Germany. he summits of the Ba 'schcr Wald rise to the height of about 4000 (t., and those of the ohmer Wald to 4800 (t., Arber being 487: ft. The valley of the Danube above Regensburg is flanked by plateaus slopingqgently to the Danube, but rccipitous towards the valley of t e eckar. The centre of this eevated tract is the Rauhe Alb, so named on account of the harshness of the climate. The plateau continuing to the north-east and then to the north, under the name of the Franconian jura, is crossed by the valley of the winding Altmllhl, and extends to the Main. To the west extensive undulating grounds or low plateaus occupy the area between the Main and the Neckar. The south-western corner of the empire contains a series of better defined hill-ranges. Beginning with the Black Forest (Schwarzwald), we find its southern heights decline to the valley of the Rhine, above Basel. and to the ura. The summits are rounded and covered with wood, the highest in the Feldberg (to m. SE. of Freiburg. 4898 ft.). Northwards the lack Forest sses into the plateau of the Necknrbergland (average hei ht, rooo t.). The heights between the lower Neckar and the Main arm the Odenwald (about I700 ft): and the Spessart, which is watered by the Main on threesides, is nothing but a continuation of the Otlenwald. West of this range of hills lies the valley of the upper Rhine, extending about 180 m. from south to north, and with a width of only an to 2% m._ In the up r parts the Rhine is rapid, and therefore navrgab e with dithculzy; this explains why the towns there are not ~alon the banks of the river, but some 5 to to m. 06. But from Spires 'speyer) town succeeds town as far down as Dilsseldori. The western boundary oi this valley is iormed in the first instance by the Vosges. where ranite summits rise from under the surrounding red Triassic rocks Sulzer Belchen. 4669 it.). To the south the range is not continuous with the Swiss jura. the valley oi the Rhine being connected here with the Rhone system b low ground known as the Gate oi Mulhausen. The crest oi the osges is prettgt high and unbroken, the first convenient ss being near Zabern. w ich is followed by the railway irom Stras u to Paris On the northern side the Vosges are connected with the ardt sandstone lateau (Kalmit. 224i it.). which rises abruptly irom the plain oi t e Rhine. The mountains south of Mainz. which are mostly covered by vineyards. are lower. the Donnersberg. however. raising its head to 2:5.) it. These hills are bordered on the west by the high plain oi Lorraine and the coalfields oi Saarbriicken. the iormer being traversed by the river MoseL The larger part of Lorraine belongs to France. but the German part possesses great mineral wealth in its rich layers of ironstone (siderite) and in the coal-fields oi the Saar. The tract oi the Hunsrilck. Taunus and Eiiel is an extended plateau. divided into separate sections by the river valleys. Among these the Rhine valley from Bin en to Bonn. and that oi the Mosel irom Trier to Coblcnz. are winging go es excavated by the rivers. The Eiiel presents a sterile, thinly-poop ed plateau. covered by extensive moors in several places. It passes westwards imperceptibly into the Ardennes. The hills on the right bank oi the Rhine also are in gin oi a like barren character. without wood; the \Vesterwald (a ut 2000 it.). which separates the valleys of the Sieg and Lahn. is particularly so. The northern and southern limits oi the Nicderrheinische Gebirge present a strikin contrast to the central region. In the south thedeclii-ities oi the aunus (2890 it.) are marked by the occurrence oim eral springs. as at Ems on the hn. Nauheim. Hamburg. Soden. icsbadeti. &c.. and by the vineyards which roduce the best Rhinewines. To the north oi this system. on the ot er hand. lies the great coal basin oi Westphalia. the largest in Germany. In the south oi the hilly duchy oi Hesse rise the isolated "IOUfllilllegTOUpl oi the Vogelsberg (2530 it.)and the Rhon (3t i7 it). separat hy the valley oi the Fulda. which uniting farther north with the Worm iorms the Weser. To the east of Hesse lies Thuringia. a province consisting oi the iar-stretching wooded ridge of the Thuringian Forest (Thl'iringerwald: with t ree peaks upwards oi 3000 it. high). and an extensive elevated plain to the north. Its rivers are the Saale and Unstrut. The plateau is bounded on the north by the Harz. an isolated group oi mountains. rich in minerals, with its highest elevation in the bare summit oi the Brocken (3747 it). To the west of the Harz a series of hilly tracts is comprised under the name oi the Weser Mountains. out oi which above Minden the river Weser bursts by the Porta \‘Vestphalica. A narrow ridge. the Teutobur Wald (tgoo it.). extends between the Weser and the Ems as ar as the net hbourhood oi Osnabrt'iclt. Lakes—Tho regions which abound in lakes have already been Y)lnlt'd out. The Lake of Constance or Bodensee (2041 sq. m.) is on he frontier of the empire, portions of the northern banks belonging rvt'hllln to Bavaria, Wilrttemberg and Baden. In the south the .irgest ltes are the Chiemsee ( sq. m.); the Ammersee and the Nurmsee. A good many smal er lakes are to be found in the 3avarian Alps. The North German plain is dotted with upwards if 500 lakes, coverin an area of about 2 00 sq. m. The largest of hi-se are the three iafis—the Oder Ha coveri 370 sq. m., the ~rische Haff. 332. and the Kurische Haff, 626. "gl'he lakes in the Prussian and Pomeranian provinces, in Mecltlenburg and in Holstein. ind those of the Havel, have already been mentioned. In the west he onl lakes of importance are the Steinhuder Meer, 14 m. northiest Jllanover, and the Dflmmersee on the southern frontier of Jldenburg. (P. A. A.)
o the east the Thuringian Forest is connected by the platuu oi the Frankenwald with the Fichtelgebirge. This group oi mountains. occupying what may be regarded as ethnologically the centre oi Germany. iorms a hydrographical centre. whence the Naab ilows southward to the Danube. the Main westward to the Rhine. the E er eastward to the Elbe. and the Saale northward. also into the El . in the north-east the Fichteigebirge connects itsrli directl with the Erzgebirge. which forms the northern boundary oi Bo cmia. The southern sides oi this range are comparatively steep; on the north it slopes gently down to the plains oi beipzig. but is intersected by the deep valleys oi the Elster and Mulde. Although by no means iertic. the Erzgcbirgc is very thickly peopled. as various branches oi indust have taken root there in numerous small places. Around Zwickati t ere are roductivc coal-fields. and mining ior metals is carried on near reibe . In the east a tableland oi sandstone. called Saxon Switzerlan . irom the picturesque outlines into which it has been eroded. adjoins the Erz ebirge: one oi its most notable ieatures is the deep ravine by whic the Elbe escapes irom it. Numerous quarries. which supply the North German cities with stone ior buildings and monuments. have been opened along the valley. The stan stone range oi the Elbe unites in the east with the low Lusatian group. along the east oi which runs the best road irom northern Germany to Bohemia. Then comes a ran e oi lesser hills clustering together to iorm the irontier between Si esia atid Bohemia. The most western group is the lsergcbir . and the next the Riesengebirge. a narrow rid e oi abom 20 mi cs' length. wuh_ bare summits. Excluding the lps. the Schncekoppe (5166 it.) is the highest peak in Germany; and the southern declivities oi this range contain the sources oi the Elbe. The hills north and north-east of it are ll'nlk‘sl the Silusian Mountains. Here one oi the minor (Whfidd! Rives employment to a population grouped round a fillme or SflmP-sratively small centres. One of the main roads mto Bohemia (the pass oi Landshut) runs along the eastern base oi the Ricsungi'birgc. Still iarther to the east tb mountains are grouped around the hollow of (ilntl. whence the veisst: iorces its nay towards the north. This hollow is shut in on the cast by the btiiletit' group. in which the Altvater rises to almost 4900 it. The Edslt'l'l'l portion oi the roup. called the Uesenke. sltipcs gently away to the valley oi the er. whiih aiiords an open route ior the international traific. like that through the hiiilhausen Gate in Alsace. Geographers style this the Moravian Cate.
The North German plain presents little variet . yet is not abso lutely u_niiorm. A row oi low hills runs genera ly parallel to the mountain ranges already noticed. at a distance 0i 20 to 30 m. to the north. To these belongs the up r Silesian COQLbasin. which occu tea a considerable area in soul eastern Silesia. North oi the mid l_e districts oi the Elbe country the hei hts are called the Flaming hills. _ Westward lies as the last ling of this series the Llincburger Heide or Heath. between the Weser and Elbe. north oi Hanover._ A second tract. 0! moderate elevation. s round the Baltic. Without, however. approaching its shores. his plateau contains a considcrable number oi lakes. and is divided into three portions b the_ Vistula and the Oder. The most eastward is the so-called russian _Seenplaite. Spirdingsee (430 it. above sealevclvand 46 sq. m. in area) and Matiersce are the largest lakes; th are situated in the centre oi the plateau, and give rise to the Some peaks near the Russian irontier attain to tooo it. he Pomeranian Seeréplatte. between the Viittula and the Oder. extends irom to N. .. its greatest elevation bein in the neighbourhood oi Damig (Turmberg. 1086 it.). The Seen latte oi Mecklenburg. on the other hand. stretches irom S.E. to ii‘l.W.. and most of its lakes. oi which the Milritz is the largest. send their waters touarris the Elbe. The finely wooded hei hts which surround the bays oi the east coast oi Ho stein and Sch eswi ma be regarded as a con‘ tinuation oi these Baltic elevations. The bwest parts. thereion oi the North German plain. excluding the sea-coasts. are the central districts irom about 52" to 53° N. lat.. where the Vistula. ‘Netae. Warthe. Oder. Spree and Havel iorm vast swampy lowlands (in. German called Brtit'he). which have been considerably reduced by the construction oi canals and b cultivation. improvements due in lar e measure to Frederick the real. The Spreewald. to the S E. of erlin. is_o_ne oi the most remarkable districts oi Germany. As the S ree divides itscli there into innumerable branches. enclosing thick y wooded islands. boats form the only means of communication. West oi Berlin the Havel widens into what arccalled the Havel lakes. to which the environs oi Potsdam owe their charms. ln eneral the ~soil_oi the North German plain cannot be termed ierti e. the cultivation nearly everywhere requirin severe and constant labour. Long stretches of ground are cove by moors. and there turtcutting forms the principal occupation oi the inhabitants. The greatest extent oi moorland is found in the westernmost parts oi the plain, in Oldenburg and East Frisia. The plain contains. however a few districts oi t e utmost fertility. rticularly the tracts on the. central Elbe. and the marsh lands on th: west coast of Holstein and the north coast oi Hanover. Oldenburg and East Frisia. which, within the last two centuries. the inhabitants have reclaimed iron thfizsea by meansoliiimmsnse dikes.
ivrrs.— me in e n cnt river-s stems ma be dist“ 3ththose oi the Memel. Bfegel. Vistula (ywt-iciiiet).yoa¢i. Bib-eg‘hh'm' Ems. Rhine [and [53":de or these the P ' ' eon entire_y. an t e er mostly, to the rman em ‘ Danu _ has its sources on German soil; but only a fiith oiTi}: course is German. lts total length is t750 m.. and the Bavarian irontier at Passiu. where the Inn joins it. is only 350 in. (“gang irom its sources. it is navigable as far as Ulrn. 220 m. at;on Past-w; and its tributaries the Lech. lsar. inn and Altmilhl are .19 navigable. :The Rhine is the most important river of although n_etther_ its murces nor its mouths are within the limi‘tis' oi the empire. i‘rom the Lake of Constance to Basel (in m ) the Rhine iorrns the boundary between the German empire and Switzerland; the canton oi Schaiihauscn. however. is situated on the northern batik oi the river. From Basel to below Emmerich tk Rhine belongs to the German em irwabout 70 ni. or i0ur~scventhg oi its whole course. It is naviga le all this istance as are also the Neckar irom Esslingen.thc Main irom Bambe .the Lahn the the Ruhr. the_ Mosel irom_Metz, with its a iients the. Saar and Sauer. Sea-goin vessels sail u the Ems as iar as Halte. and [thf crait as far as reven. and t e river is connected with a richly branchmqmsystem oi canals. as the Ems-Jade and Dortmund-Ems canals. e. Fulda. navigable ior 63 m.. and the Wern. 8 in above the point where they unite. iorm by their junction the '01-; which has a course oi ail m.. and receives as navigable tributaries the. Allcr. the Leine irom ianover. and some smaller strmrnst Oceangotng steamers. however. cannot get as iar as Bremen. and unload at remerhaven. The Elbe. alter a course oi 250 m.. enters German territory PW Bodenbach. 490 in. irom its mouth. it is nav‘ above this point through its tributa . the Moldau. to Pr; u; Hambu' may be reached by vessels 0 17 it. drau ht. The ngvi. able tn utarieii oi the Elbe are the Saale (below hauinbur-g) the ave]. Spree. hide. Sude and some others. The Oder ins to be navigable almost on the ironticr at Ratibor. 80 m. irom its mouth. receiving an navigable tributaries the Glatz Noise and the “'arthe. Only_ the lower course of the Vistula belongs to the German em ire. within which it isa broad. navigable stream of considerable voltme On the l’regel ships oi 3000 tons reach KOnigsberg. and river Men reach lnsterburg; the Allc. its tributa . may also be navigated. The blenicl is navigable in its course 0 “3 m. irom the Russian frontier. Germany is thus a country abounding in natural waterways. the total length oi_thein being estimattd at 7000 in. But it is only the Rhine. in its middle course. that has at all times sufficient volume oi water to meet the requirements 0i a good navigable Iivgg.
Uralo y.—Germany consists of a floor of folded Palaeozoic rocks ipon w ich rest unconformably the comparatively little disturbed wads of the Mesozoic system, while in the North German plain a overing of modern deposits conceals the whole of the older strata rom View, excepting some scattered and isolated outcrops of Iretaceous and Tertia beds. The rocks which compose the ancient loor are thrown into IZalds which run approximately from W.S.W. o ENE. The are exposed on the one hand in the neighbourhood if the Rhine an on the other hand in the Bohemian massif. With he latter must be included the Frankenwald, the Thuringerwald, ind even the Hart. The oldest rocks, belonging to the Archaean ,ystem, occur in the south, forming the V0 esand the Black Forest n the west. and the greater rt of the Bo emian massif, including he Erzgebirge, in the east. They consist chiefly of gneiss and schist, ivith granite and other eruptive rocks. Farther north, in the ilunsrtick, the Taunus, the Eifel and Westerwald, the liar: and the rrankenwald, the ancient floor is compOSed mainl of Devonian )eds. Other Palaeozoic systems are, however. inclu ed in the folds. The Cambrian, for example. is exposed at Leimltz near Hof in the Frankenwald, and the important coal-field 0f the Saar lies on the southern side of the Hunsriiclt, while Ordovician and Silurian beds iave been found in several localities. Along the northern border )f the folded belt lies the coal basin of the Ruhr in Westphalia, which is the continuation of the Belgian coal-field, and bears much :he same relation to the Rhenish Devonian area that the coal basin )l Liege bears to the Ardcnnes. Carboniferous and Devonian beds ire also found south-east of the Bohemian massif, where lies the :xtcnsive coal-field of Silesia. The Permian, as in England, is not nvolved in the folds which have affected the older beds, and in general lies unconformably upon them. It occurs chiefly around the masses of ancient rock, and one of the largest areas is that of the >.1.ir.
Between the old rocks of the Rhine on the west and the ancient main] of Bohemia on the cast a vast area of Triassic beds extends irom Hanover to Basel and from Met: to Bayreuth. Over the greater part of this region the Triassic beds are free from folding and are nearly horizontal, but faultin is by no means absent, ;~pecially along the margins of the Ho emian and Rhcnish hills. The Triassic beds must indeed have covered a large.part of these old rock masses, but they have been reserved only where they were hiullt'd down to a lower level. Aon the southern margin of the Triassic area there is a long band of urassic beds dipping towards the Danube: and at its eastern extremity this band is continuous with a s 'nclinal of jurassic beds, running parallel to the western border 0 the Bohemian massif. but separated from it by a narrow strip of Triassic beds. Towards the north. in Hanover and Westphalia. the Triassic beds are followed by jurassic and Cretaceous tit-posits, the latter being here the more important. As in the south of l-lngland, the lower beds of the Cretaceous are of estuarine origin and the Upper Cretaceous overlaps the Lower, lying in the valley of the Ruhr directly upon the Palaeozoic rocks. ln Saxony also the upper Cretaceous beds rest directly upon the Palaeozoic‘or Archaean rocks. Still more to the east. in the province of Silesia. both jurassic and Cretaceous beds are again met with, but they are to a large extent concealed by the recent accumulations of the great plain. The liocene system is unknown in Germany except in the foothills of the Alps; but the Oligocene and Miocene are widely spread, especially in the great plain and in the depression of the Danube. The Oligocene is generally marine. Marine Miocene occurs in NW. Germany and the Miocene of the Danube valle is also in part marine, but in central Germany it is of fluviatile or acustrine origin. The lignites of Hesse, Casscl, &c.. are interstratified with basaltic lava-flows which form the greater part of the Vogelsberg and other bills. The trachytes of the ~Siebengebirge are probably of slightly earlier date. The precise age of the volcanoes 0f the Eifcl. many of which are in a very perfect state of preservation. is not clear. but they are certainly Tertiary or Past-tertiary Leucite and nepheline lavas are here abundant. In the Siebengebirge the little crater 0f Roderberg. with its'lavas and scoriae of leucitebasalt, is posterior to some of the Pleistocene river de its.
A glance at a geologica map of Germany will show that the greater part of Prussia and of German Poland is covered by Quaternary dopnfilts. These are in part of glacial origin. and contain Scandinth-inn boulders; but fluviatile and aeolian depOsiu also occur. Quaternary beds also cover the floor of the bread depression through
ranean climate of 'southern EUI‘OF. German being separated from that regionvby the lofty barrier o the Alps. Xlthough there are very considerable differences in the range of temperature and the amount of rainfall throu hout Germany. these are not so great as they would be were it not t at the elevated platmus and mountain chains are in the south, while the north is occupied by low-lyin plains. in the west no chain of hills intercepts the warmer an moister winds which blow from the Atlantic. and these accordingly influence at times even the eastern regions of Germany. The mean annual temperature of south-western Germany, or the Rhine and Danube basins, is about 52° to 54° F.. that of central Germany 48° to 0°, and that of the northern plain 46° to 48°. ln Pomerania and est Prussia it is only 44° to 45°, and in East Prussia 42° to 44°. The
mean january temperature varies between 22° and 34° (in Masuren and Cologne respectively); the mean july temperature, between 6t° in north Schleswig and 68° at Cologne. The extremes of cold and heat are, as recorded in the ten years 189 ~1905, 7° in Krinigsberg and 93° in Heidelberg (the hottest place in ermany). The difference in the mean annual temperature between the south-west and northwest of Germany amounts to about °. The contrasts of heat and cold are furnished by the valley of t e Rhine above Mains, which has the greatest mean heat, the mildest winter and the highest summer tern rature, and the lake plateau of East Prussia, where Arys on the irdingsee has a like winter temperature to the Brocken at 3200 ft. he Baltic has the lowest spring temperature, and the autumn there is also not characterized by an appreciably higher degree of warmth. ln central Germany the hig plateaus of the lirz and Fichtelgebir e are the coldest regions. In south Germany the upper Bavarian Siain experiences an inclement winter and a cold summer. In Alsace- orraine the Vosges and the plateau of Lorraine are also remarkable for low temperatures. The warmest districts of the German empire are the northern parts of the Rhine plain, from Karlsruhe downwards, especially the Rheintal; these are scarcely 300 ft. above the sm-levol, and are protected by mountainous tracts of land. The same holds true of the valleys of the Neckar, Main and Mosel. Hence the vine is everywhere cultivated in these districts. The mean summer tem rature there is 66° and upwards, while the average temperature oifianuary does not descend to the freezing point ( 2°). The climate of north-western Germany (west of the :ll)(.‘) 5 ows a predominating oceanic character, the summers not being too hot (mean summer temperature 60° to 62°). and snow in winter remaining but a short time on the ground. West of the \Veser the average temperature of january exceeds 32°:to the cast it sinks to 30°, and therefore the Elbe is generally covered with ice for some months of the year, as are also its tributaries. The farther