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of the maiden, i.e. Athena); Jebb (on Bacchylides, fr. xi. 2) suggests a derivation from lévau, the goddess of the “onset.” At Thebes she was worshipped as Athena Onka or Onga, of equally uncertain derivation (possibly from 5 yros, “a height”). Peculiar to Arcadia is the title Athena Alea, probably=“warder off of evil,” although others explain it as = “warmth,” and see in it an allusion to her physical nature as one of the powers of light. Farnell (Cults, p. 275) points out that at the same time she is certainly looked upon as in some way connected with the health-divinities, since in her temple she is grouped with Asclepius and Hygieia (see HyGIEIA). She already appears as the goddess of counsel (roA:flovkos) in the Iliad and in Hesiod. The Attic bouleutae took the oath by Athena Boulaia; at Sparta she was āyopaia, presiding over the popular assemblies in the market-place; in Arcadia unxavirus, the discoverer of devices. The epithet rpovola (“forethought”) is due, according to Farnell, to a confusion with Trpovala, referring to a statue of the goddess standing “before a shrine,” and arose later (probably spreading from Delphi), some time after the Persian wars, in which she repelled a Persian attack on the temples “by divine forethought”; another legend attributes the name to her skill in assisting Leto at the birth of Apollo and Artemis. With this aspect of her character may be compared the Hesiodic legend, according to which she was the daughter of Metis. Her connexion with the trial of Orestes, the introduction of a milder form of punishment for justifiable homicide, and the institution of the court £rl IIa)\\aðiq, show the important part played by her in the development of legal ideas. The protectress of cities was naturally also a goddess of war. As such she appears in Homer and Hesiod and in post-Homeric legend as the slayer of the Gorgon and taking part in the battle of the giants. On numerous monuments she is represented as apeia, “the warlike,” vixmdāpos, “bringer of victory,” holding an image of Nike (q.v.) in her outstretched hand (for other similar epithets see Roscher's Lexikon). She was also the goddess of the arts of war in general; aroukeia, she who draws up the ranks for battle, {warmpia, she who girds herself for the fray. Martial music (cp.’A6mm aa\rty#, “trumpet”) and the Pyrrhic dance, in which she herself is said to have taken part to commemorate the victory over the giants, and the building of war-ships were attributed to her. She instructed certain of her favourites in gymnastics and athletics, as a useful training for war. The epithets irria, XaXtviris, bauáattritos, usually referred to her as goddess of war-horses, may perhaps be reminiscences of an older religion in which the horse was sacred to her. As a war-goddess, she is the embodiment of prudent and intelligent tactics, entirely different from Ares, the personification of brute force and rashness, who is fitly represented as suffering defeat at her hands. She is the patroness and protectress of those heroes who are distinguished for their prudence and caution, and in the Trojan War she sides with the more civilized Greeks. The goddess of war develops into the goddess of peace and the pursuits connected with it. She is prominent as the promoter of agriculture in Attic legend. The Athenian hero Erechtheus (Erichthonius), originally an earth-god, is her foster-son, with whom she was honoured in the Erechtheum on the Acropolis. Her oldest priestesses, the dew-sisters—Aglauros, Herse, Pandrosos—signify the fertilization of the earth by the dew, and were probably at one time identified with Athena, as surnames of whom both Aglauros and Pandrosos are found. The story of the voluntary sacrifice of the Attic maiden Aglauros on behalf of her country in time of war (commemorated by the ephebi taking the oath of loyalty to their country in her temple), and of the leap of the three sisters over the Acropolis rock (see ERECHTHEUs), probably points to an old human sacrifice. Athena also gave the Athenians the olive-tree, which was supposed to have sprung from the bare soil of the Acropolis, when smitten by her spear, close to the horse (or spring of water) produced by the trident of Poseidon, to which he appealed in support of his claim to the lordship of Athens. She is also connected with Poseidon in the legend of Erechtheus, not as being

in any way akin to the former in nature or character, but as indicating the contest between an old and a new religion. This god, whose worship was introduced into Athens at a later date by the Ionian immigrants, was identified with ErechtheusErichthonius (for whose birth Athena was in a certain sense responsible), and thus was brought into connexion with the goddess, in order to effect a reconciliation of the two cults. Athena was said to have invented the plough, and to have taught men to tame horses and yoke oxen. Various arts were attributed to her-shipbuilding, the goldsmith's craft, fulling, shoemaking and other branches of industry. As early as Homer she takes especial interest in the occupations of women; she makes Hera's robe and her own peplus, and spinning and weaving are often called “the works of Athena.” The custom of offering a beautifully wovén peplus at the Panathenaic festival is connected with her character as Ergane the goddess of industry." As patroness of the arts, she is associated with Hephaestus (one of her titles is ‘Hobataria) and Prometheus, and in Boeotia she was regarded as the inventress of the flute. According to Pindar, she imitated on the flute the dismal wail of the two surviving Gorgons after the death of Medusa. The legend that Athena, observing in the water the distortion of her features caused by playing that instrument, flung it away, probably indicates that the Boeotians whom the Athenians regarded with contempt, used the flute in their worship of the Boeotian Athena. The story of the slaying of Medusa by Athena, in which there is no certain evidence that she played a direct part, explained by Roscher as the scattering of the storm-cloud, probably arose from the fact that she is represented as wearing the Gorgon's head as a badge. As in the case of Aphrodite and Apollo, Roscher in his Lexikon deduces all the characteristics of Athena from a single conception —that of the goddess of the storm or the thunder-cloud (for a discussion of such attempts see Farnell, Cults, i. pp. 3, 263). There seems little reason for regarding her as a nature-goddess at all, but rather as the presiding divinity of states and cities, of the arts and industries—in short, as the goddess of the whole intellectual side of human life. Except at Athens, little is known of the ceremonies or festivals which attended her worship. There we have the following. (1) The ceremony of the Three Sacred Ploughs, by which the signal for seed-time was given, apparently dating from a period when agriculture was one of the chief occupations of her worshippers. (2) The Procharisteria at the end of winter, at which thanks were offered for the germination of the seed. (3) The Scirophoria, with a procession from the Acropolis to the village of Skiron, in the height of summer, the priests who were to entreat her to keep off the summer heat walking under the shade of parasols (axipov) held over them, others, however, connect the name with axipos (“gypsum”), perhaps used for smearing the image of the goddess. (4) The Oschophoria, at the vintage season, with races among boys, and a procession, with songs in praise of Dionysus and Ariadne. (5) The Chalkeia (feast of smiths), at which the birth of Erechtheus and the invention of the plough were celebrated. (6) The Plynteria and Callynteria, at which her ancient image and peplus in the Erechtheum and the temple itself were cleaned, with a procession in which bunches of figs (frequently used in lustrations) were carried. . (7). The Arrhephoria or Errephoria (perhaps= Ersephoria, “dew-bearing”), at which four girls, between seven and eleven years of age, selected from noble families, carried certain unknown sacred objects to and from the temple of Aphrodite “in the gardens” (see J. E. Harrison, Classical Review, April 1889). (8) The Panathenaea, at which the new robes for the image of the goddess were carried through the city, spread like a sail on a mast. The reliefs of the frieze of the cella of the Parthenon enable us to form an idea of the procession. Athletic games, open to all who traced their nationality to Athens, were part of this festival. Mention should also be made of the Argive

According to J. E. Harrison in Classical Review, (June, 1894). Athena Ergane, is the goddess of the fruits of the field and the procreation of children.

ceremony, at which the room (ancient wooden statue) of Athena was washed in the river Inachus, a symbol of her purifimtion after the Gigantomachia.

The usual attributes of Athena were the helmet, the aegis, the round shield with the head of Medusa in the centre, the lance, an olive branch, the owl, the cock and the snake. Of these the aegis, usually explained as a storm-cloud, is probably intended as a battle-charm, like the Gorgon‘s head on the shield and the faces on the shields of Chinese soldiers; the owl probably represents the form under which she was worshipped in primitive times, and subsequently became her favourite bird (the epithet 1Mux5n'ir, meaning “ keen-eyed " in Homer, may have originally signified “ owl-faced "); the snake, a common companion of the earth deities, probably refers to her connexion with ErechtheusErichthonius.

As to artistic representations of the goddess, we have first the rude figure which seems to be a copy of the Palladium; secondly, the still rude, but otherwise more interesting, figures of her, as ng. when accompanying heroes, on the early painted vases; and thirdly, the type of her as produced by Pheidias, from which little variation appears to have been made. Of his numerous statues of her, the three most celebrated were set up on the Acrepolis. (1) Athena Porlhcnas, in the Parthenon. It was in ivory and gold, and 30 ft. high. She was represented standing, in along tunic; on her head was a helmet, ornamented with sphinxes and grilfins; on her breast was the aegis, fringed with serpents and the Gorgon's head in centre. In her right hand was a Nike or winged victory, while her left held a spear, which rested on a shield on which were represented the battles of the Amazons with the giants. (z) A colossal statue said to have been formed from the spoils taken at Marathon, the socallcd Athena Pramaclms. (3) Athena Lennie, so called because it had been dedicated by the Athenian cleruchiu in Lemnos In this she was represented without arms, as a brilliant type of virgin beauty. The two last statues were of bronze. From the time of Pheidias calm earnestness, self-conscious might, and cleamess of intellect were the main characteristics of the goddess. The eyes, slightly cast down, betoken an attitude of thoughtfulness; the forehead is clear and open; the mouth indicates firmness and resolution. The whole suggests a masculine rather than a feminine form.

From Greece the worship of Athena extended to Magna Graecia, where a number of temples were erected to her in various places. In Italy proper she was identified with Minerva (q.v.).

See articles in Pauly-Wissowa’s Realm: Iopédie; W. H. Roscher'a Lexikondzr illyllmlogic; Daremberg an Saglio'sDirlimmairl dc: nnln mm (5.7. " Minerva "); L. reller, ("whier illthU/UKH'; \V. l. Rn-vsher, “ Die (irundlmleutum: der Athene," in ix'ur und Amhraria (1543); F. A. Voi _ " Bcitrage lur M thologie ties Ares und Athena," in Leiprigu ‘ludim, iv. (18m); R. l-‘arnell. The Cult: of Ike Greek 5mm, i. (1896); _I. E. Harrison, Profrgomerm la Ute Study of Greek Rri’i'tiort (1901), for the festivals esrx'rially; 0. Gru ipe, (int. hiirhe ilf'lhnlagiz', ii. (1907). In the article Gnmzit Alf, 2| represents Athena in the act of striking a prostrate

' nt'. 2- 38 a statuette of Athena l’arthenos, a replica of the work 0 Pheidiaa. (_I. H. F.)

ATHENABUI, a name originally applied in ancient Greece CAM“) to buildings dedicated to Athena, and specially used as the designation of a temple in Athens, where poets and men of learning were accustomed to meet and read their productions. The academy for the promotion of learning which the emperor lladrian built (about AD. 13 5) at Rome, near the Forum, was also called the Athenaeum. Poets and orators still met and discussed there, but regular courses of instruction were given by a staff of professors in rhetoric, jurisprudence, grammar and philosophy. The institution, later mllod Schola Romana, continued in high repute till the 5th century. Similar academies were also founded in the provinces and at Constantinople by the emperor Theodosius ll. In modern times the name has been applied to various academies, as those of Lyons and Marseilles, and the Dutch high lchools, and it has become a very general designation for literary club. It is also familiar as the title of seven] literary periodicals, notably of the London literary weekly founded in 1828.

ATHENABUS. of Nnucratis in Egypt, Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourished about the end of the zadand the beginning


of the 3rd century ab. Suidas only tells us that he lived “ in the times of Marcus "; but the contempt with which he speaks of Commodus (died 19:) shows that he survived that emperor. Athenaeus himself states that he was the author of a treatise on the IhmlIa—a kind of fish mentioned by Archippus and other comic poets—and of a history of the Syrian kings, both of which works are lost. We still possess the Deipnosaplrislae, which may mean dinner-table philosophers or authorities on banquets, in fifteen books. The first two books, and parts of the third. eleventh and fifteenth, are only extant in epitome, but otherwise we seem to possess the work entire. It is an immense store-house of miscellaneous information, chiefly on matters connected with the table, but also containing remarks on music, songs, dances, games, courtesans. It is full of quotations from writers whose works have not come down to us; nearly 800 writers and 2500 separate writings are referred to by Athenaeus; and he boasts of having read 800 plays of the hliddle Comedy alone. The plan of the Deipimrophitlac is exceedingly cumbrous, and is badly carried out. It professes to be an account given by the author to his friend Timocrates of a banquet held at the house of Laurentius (or Larentius), a scholar and wealthy patron of art. It is thus a dialogue within a dialogue, after the manner of Plato, but u conversation of sullicient length to occupy several days (though represented as taking place in one) could not be conveyed in a style similar to the short conversations of Socrates. Among the twenty-nine guests are Galen and Ulpian, but they are all probably fictitious pcrsonages, and the majority take no part in the conversation. ll Ulpian is identical with the famous jurist, the Deipnosoplrirlae must have been written after his death (228); but the jurist was murdered by the practon'an guards, whereas Ulpian in Athenaeus dies 2 natural death. The conversation ranges from the dishes before the guests to literary matters of every description, including points of grammar and criticism; and they are expected to bring with them extracts from the poets, which are read aloud and discussed at table. The whole is but a clumsy apparatus for displaying the varied and extensive reading of the author. As a work of art it can take but a low rank, but as a repertory of fragments and morsels of information it is invaluable.

Editio princeps. Aldine. r524; Casaubon. l597-l600; Schweig. l'liltlin, Idol-180]; Dindurf, t827; hleint'ke, itlso-ttitq; Kaibel. may—1890; English translation by Yonge in llohn's Closiiral Library.

ATHENAGORAS. a Christian apologist of the 2nd century A.n., was, according to an emcndator of the Paris Codex 451 of the nth century, a native of Athens. The only sources of information regarding him are a short notice by Philip of Side, in l‘amphylia (c. AD. 420), and the inscription on his principal work. Philip—or rather the compiler who made excerpts from him—says that he was at the head of an Alexandrian school (the catechetical), that he li\ ed in the time of lladrian and Antoninus, to whom he addressed his Apology, and that Clement of Alexandria was his pupil; but these statements are more than doubtful. The imcription on the work describes it as the " Embassy of Athenagoras, the Athenian, a philosopher and a Christian concerning the Christians, to the Emperors Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus, &c." This statement has p'ven rise to considerable discussion, but from it and internal evidence the date of the Apology (llpmfizla npi Xpi:rnuér) may be fixed at about AA). 177. Athenagoras is also the author of a discourse on the resurrection of the body, which is not authenticated otherwise than by the titles on the various mauu. scripts. in the Apology, after contrasting the judicial treatment of Christians with that of other accused persons, he refutes the accusations brought against the Christians of atheism, eating human flesh and licentiousncss, and in doing so takes occasion to make a vigorous and skilful attack on pagan polythcism and mythology. The discourse on the resurrection answers objections to the doctrine, and attempts to prove its truth from considerations of God's purpose in the creation of man, His justice and the nature of man himself. Athenagoraa is a powerful and clear writer, who strives to comprehend his opponents' views and is acquainted with the classical writers. He used the Apology of justin, but hardly the works of Aristides or Tatian. llis theology is strongly tinged with Platonism, and this may account for his falling into desuctude. His discussion of the Trinity has tome points of speculative interest, but it is not sufficiently Worked out; he regards the Son as the Reason or Wisdom of the Father, and the Spirit as a divine et'fluenoe. On some other points, as the nature of matter, the immortality of the soul and the principle of sin, his views are interesting.

Eorrros's.——]. C. Th. Eg. de Otto. Car In Apol. Clm'xf. Saec. If. vol. vii. (Jena, 1857); E. Schwartz in exle and Unrnmchungm, iv. 2 (Leipzig, 189l).

TnAs~Lsrioss.—Humphreys (London, 1714); B. P. Pratten (A lite-Nit. Fathers, l-ldinbur h. 1867).

branous—A. Harnar ,Geuh. d" alithr. Li'u. pp. 526-558,:ind similar works by t). Bardenhewer and A. Ehrhard; Herzog-llnuck, Reallncylm G. Krtlger, Early CI". Lil. p. 130 (where additional literature is cited). In 1559 and 161: appeared in French a work on True rind Perfect Low, purporting to be a translation from the Greek of Athenagoras; it is a palpable forgery.

ATHKNODORUS. the name of two Stoic philosophers of the lst century n.c., who have frequently been confounded.

r. ATHENODORUS CANautn-Ls (c. 74 B.C.-A.D. 7), _so called from his birthplace Canana near Tarsus (not Cana in Cilicia nor Canna in Lycaonia), was the son of one Sandon, whose name indicates Tarsian descent, not Jewish as many have held. He was a personal friend of Strabo, from Whom we derive our knowledge of his life. He taught the young Octavian (afterwards Augustus) at Apollonia, and was a pupil of Positionius at Rhodes. Subsequently he appears to have travelled in the East (Petra and Egypt) and to have made himself famous by lecturing in the great cities of the Mediterranean. Writing in so B.C., Cicero speaks 0f him with the highest respect (cf. Ep. ad. AIL, xvi. r1. 4, 14. 4), a fact which enables us to fix the date of his birth as not later than about 74. His influence over Augustus was strong and lasting. He followed him to Rome in 44, and is said to have criticized him with the utmost candour, bidding him repeat the letters of the alphabet before acting on an angry impulse. In later years he was allowed by Augustus to return to Tarsus in order to remodel the constitution of the city after the degenerate democracy which had misgoverned it under Boethus. Ile succeeded (c. 15—io 5c.) in setting up a timocratic oligarchy in the imperial interest (see TARSUS). Sir W. M. Ramsay is inclined to attribute to the influence of Athenodorus the striking resemblances which can be established between Seneca. and Paul, the latter of whom must certainly have been acquainted with his teachings. According to Eusebius and Strabo he was a learned scientist for his day, and some attribute to him a history of Tatsus. He helped Cicero in the composition of the De Oflicr'ir. His works are not certainly known, and none are extant. (See Sir W. M. Ramsay in the Expositor, September i906, pp. :68 fl.)

2. Arnzs'oooizus CORDYUON, nlso oI Tarsus, was keeper of the library at Pergamum, and was an old man in 47 n.c. In his enthusiasm for Stoicism he used to cut out from Stoic writings passages which seemed to him unsatisfactory. He also settled in Rome, where he died in the house of the younger Cato.

Among others of the name may be mentioned (3) Arrics'ooonus or Tcos. who played the cithara at the weddin of Alexander the Great and Statira at Susa (324 8.6.); (4) a Gree ' physician of the lst century A.D., who wroteon epidemic diseases; and two sculptors, of whom (5) one executed the statues of Apollo and Zeus which the Spartans dedicated at Del hi after Aegos tami; and (6) the other was a son of Alexander of ghodes. whom h: helped in the Laocoon group.

ATHENRY, a market town of county Galway, Ireland, 14 m. inland (IL) from Galway on the Midland Great Western main line. Pop. (1901) 853. Its name is derived from Afh-na-riogh, the ford of kings; and it grew to importance after the AngloNorman invasion as the first town of the Burgs and Berrninghams. The walls were erected in 1211 and the castle in 1238, and the remains of both are noteworthy. A Dominican monastery was founded with great magnificence by Myler dc Bermingham in 1241, and was repaired by the Board of Works in 1893. Of the Franciscan monastery of 1464 little is left. The town retude two members to the Irish parliament from


the time of Richard II. to the Union; but it never recovered from the wars of the Tudor period, culminating in a successful siege by Red Hugh O'Donnell in 1596.

ATHENS ['ABfivu, Aflmtae, modern colloquial Greek ‘Afliyvnl, the capital of the kingdom of Greece, situated in 23° 44’ E. and 37° 58' N., towards the southern end of the central and principal plain of Attica. The various theories with regard to the origin of the name are all somewhat unconvincing; it is conceivable that, with the other homonymous Greek towns, such as Athenae Diades in Euboea, 'A0fiwu may be connected etymologically with lflor, a. flower (cf. Iiirrnce, Florence), the patron goddess, Athena, was probably called after the place of her cult.

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The Attic plain, 16 1e8iou, slopes gently towards the coast of the Saronic Gulf on the south-west, on the cast it is overlooked by Mount Hymettus (3369 ft.), on the north-east by Pentelicus or Brilessus (3635 ft.) from which, in ancient and modern times, an immense quantity of the finest marble has been quarried; on the north-west by I’arncs (4656 ft.), a continuation of the Bocotian Cithacron, and on the west by Aegaleus (1532 ft.), which descends abruptly to the bay of S ' In the centre of the plain extends from north-east to south-west a series of low heights, now known as Turoovuni, culminating towards the south in the sharply pointed Lycabettus (1112 ft.), now called Hagios Goorgios from the monastery which crowns its summit. Lycabettus, the most prominent feature in the Athenian landscape, directly overhung the ancient city, but was not included in its walls; its peculiar shape rendered it unsuitable for fortifica~ tion. The Turcovuni ridge, probably the ancient. Anchcsmus, separates the valley of the Cephisus on the north-west from that of its confluent, the llissus, which skirted the ancient city on the south-west. The Cephisus, rising in I’cntelicus, enters the sea at New I’halcrum; in summer it dwindlcs to an insignificant stream, while the Ilissus, descending from Hymettus, is totally dry, probably owing to the destruction of the ancient forests on both mountains, and the consequent denudation of the soil. Separated from Lycabettus by a depression to the south-west, through which flows 3 brook, now a covered drain (probably to be identified with the Eridanus), stands the remnrkable oblong rocky mass of the Acropolis (5n ft.), rising precipitously on all sides except the western; its summit was partially levelled in prehistoric times, and the flat area was subsequently enlarged by further cutting and by means of to taining walls. Close to the Acropolis on the west is the lower rocky eminence of the Areopagus, 'Apeioe rd'yos (377 ft.), the seat of the famous council; the name (see also AREomcus) has been connected with Arcs, whose temple stood on the northern side of the hill, but is more probably derived from the ‘Apai or Eumenides, whose sanctuary was formed by a cleft in its north— eastern declivity. Farther west of the Acropolis are three elevations; to the north-west the so-callcd “Hill of the Nymphs " (34t ft.), on which the modern Observatory stands; to the west the I’nyit, the meeting-place of the Athenian democracy (351 ft.), and to the south-west the loftier Museum Hill (482 ft.), still crowned with the remains of the monument of I’hilépappus. A cavity, a little to the west of the Observatory Hill, is generally supposed to be the ancient Barathron or place of execution. To the south-east of the Acropolis, beyond the narrow valley of the Ilissus, is the hill Ardettus (436 ft.). The distance from the Acropolis to the nearest point of the sea coast It Phalerum is a little over 3 m.

The natural situation of Athens was such as to favour the growth of a powerful community. For the first requisites of a primitive settlement—food supply and defence—it My... afiorded every advantage. The Attic plain, notwith- Mlle-leostanding the lightness of the soil,furnishcd an adequate mhh' supply of cereals; olive and fig groves and vineyards 'mlmn' were cultivated from the earliest times in the valley of the Cephisus, and pasturrtge for sheep and goats was abundant. The surrounding rampart of mountains was broken towards th£ north-east by an open tract stretching between Hymettus and Pentelicus towards Marathon, and was traversed by the passes of Decclea, Phylé and Daphné on the north and north-west, but the distance between these natural passages and the city was sufficient to obviate the danger of surprise by an invading land force. On the other hand Athens, like Corinth, Megara and Argos, was sufficiently far from the sea to enjoy security against the sudden descent of a hostile fleet. At the same time the relative proximity of three natural harbours, Peiraeus, Zea and Munychia, favoured the development of maritime commerce and of the sea power which formed the basis of Athenian hegemony. The climate is temperate, but liable to sudden changes, the mean temperature is 63°.1 F., the maximum (in July) 99°.or, the minimum (in January) 31°-55. The summer heat is moderatcd by the sea-breeze or by cool northerly winds from the mountains (especially in July and August). The clear, bracing air, according to ancient writers, fostered the intellectual and aesthetic character of the people and endowed them with mental and physical energy. For the architectural embellishment of the city the finest building material was procurable without difficulty and in abundance; Pentelicus forms a mass of white, transparent, blue-veined marble; another variety, somewhat similar in appearance, but generally of a bluer hue, was obtained from Hymettus. For ordinary purposes grey limestone was furnished by Lycabettus and the adjoining hills; limestone from the promontory of Acté (the co-called “poros" stone), and conglomerate, were also largely employed. For the ceramic art admirable material was at hand in the district north-west of the Acropolis. For sculpture and various architectural purposes white, fine-grained marble was brought from Paros and Naxos. The main drawback to the situation of the city lay in the insufficiency of its water-supply, which was supplemented by an aqueduct constructed in the time of the Peisistratids and by later water-courses dating from the Roman period. A great number of wells were also sunk and rain-water was stored in cisterns. For the purposes of scientific topography observation of the natural features and outlines is followed by exact investigation of the architectural structures or remnants, a process demanding high technical competence, acute judgment and practical experience, as well as wide and accurate scholarship; . The building material and the manner of its employment furnish evidence no less important than the character '' masonry, the design and the modes of ornamentation: . The testimony afforded

:* by inscriptions is often of decisive importance, especially Athenian that of commemorative or votive tablets or of boundarytopo- stones found in situ; the value of this evidence is, on graphy. the other hand, sometimes neutralized owing to the former

removal of building material already used and its incorporation in later structures. Thus sepulchral inscriptions have been found on the Acropolis, though no burials took place there in ancient times. In the next place comes the evidence derived from the whole range of ancient literature and £ from descriptions of the city or its different localities. The earliest known description of Athens was that of Diodorus, 3 replmyrhs, who lived in the second half of the 4th century B.C. Among his successors were Polemon of Ilium (beginning of 2nd century B.C.), whose great xoquish reptiYngwgave a minute accountofthevotive.offeringson the Acropolis and the tombs on the Sacred Way; and Heliodorus (second half of the 2nd century) who wrote fifteen volumes on the monuments of Athens. Of these and other works of the earliest topographers only some fragments remain. In the period between A.D. 143 and 159 Pausanias visited Athens at a time when the monuments of the great age were still in their perfection and the principal embellishments £ Roman period had already been completed. The first thirty chapters of his invaluable Description of Greece(reprivnats ris 'Exxââos) are devoted to Athens, its ports and environs. Pausanias makes no claim to exhaustiveness; he selected what was best worth noticing (vä &#ioMoyárara). His account, drawn up from notes taken in the main from personal observation, possesses an especial importance for topographical research, owing to his method of describing each object in the order in which #. saw it during the course of his walks. His accuracy, which has been called in question by some scholars, has been remarkably vindicated by recent excavations at Athens and elsewhere. The list of ancient topographers closes with Pausanias. The literature of succeeding centuries furnishes only isolated references; the more important are found in the scholia on Aristophanes, the lexicons of Hesychius, Photius and others, and the Etymologicum Magnum. The notices of Athens ğuring the earlier middle ages are scanty in the extreme. In 1395

Niccolo da Martoni, a pilgrim from the Holy Land, visited Athens'

and wrote a description of a portion of the city. Of the work of $# of Ancona, written about 1450, only some fragments remain, which are well supplemented by the contemporaneous description of the capable observer known as the “Anonymus of Milan.” treatises in Greek by unknown writers belong to the same period. The Dutchman Joannes Meursius (£ wrote three disquisitions on Athenian to aphy. The conquest by Venice in 1687, led to the publication of several works in that city, includin the descriptions of De la Rue and Fanelli and the maps of £ and others. The systematic study of Athenian topography was begun in the 17th century by French residents at Athens, the consuls Giraud and Chataignier and the Capuchin monks. The visit of the French physician Jacques Spon and the Englishman, Sir George Wheler or Wheeler (1650-1723), fortunately took place before the catastrophe of the Parthenon in 1687; Spon's Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grèce et du Levant, which contained the first scientific description of the ruins of Athens, appeared in 1678; Wheler's journey into Greece, in 1682. A period of British activity in research followed in the 18th century. The monumental work of James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, who spent three years at Athens (17511754); marked an epoch in the progress of Athenian topography and is still indispensable to its study, owing to the demolition £ buildings which began about the middle of the 18th '# To this period also belong the labours of Richard Pococke and Richard Dalton. Richard Chandler, E. D. Clarke and Edward Dodwell. The great work of W.M. Leake (Topography of Athens and the Demi, 2nd ed., 1841) £ the descriptive literature to an end and inaugurated the period of modern scientific research, in which German archaeologists have played a distinguished part. Recent investigation has thrown a new and unexpected light on

the art, the monuments and the topography of the ancient city. Numerous and costly excavations have been carried out Recent by the Greek government and by native and foreign £a. scientific societies, while accidental discoveries have been frequently made during the building of the modern town. The museums, enriched by a constant inflow of works of art and inscriptions, have been carefully and scientifically arranged, and afford opportunities for systematic study denied to scholars of the past generation. Improved means of communication have enabled many acute observers to apply the test of scrutiny on the spot to theories and conclusions mainly based on literary evidence; five foreign, schools of archaeology, directed by eminent scholars, lend valuable aid to students of all nationalities, and lectures are frequently delivered in the museums and on the more interesting and important sites. . The native archaeologists of the present day hold a recognized position in the scientific world; the patriotic sentiment of former times, which prompted their zeal but occasionally warped their judgment, has been merged in devotion to science for its own sake, ' the supervision of excavations, as well as the control of the art-collections, is now in highly competent hands. Athens has thus become a centre of learning, a meeting-place for scholars and a basis for research in every part of the Greek world. The attention of many students has naturally been concentrated on the ancient city, the £ of European art and literature, and a great development of investigation and discussion in the special domain of Athenian archaeology has given birth to a voluminous literature. Many theories hitherto universally accepted have been called in question or proved to be unsound: the views of Leake, for instance, have been challenged on various points, though many of his conclusions have been justified and confirmed. The supreme importance of a study of Greek antiquities on the spot, long understood by scholars in Europe and in America, has gradually come to be recognized in England, where a close attention to ancient texts, not always adequately supplemented by a course of local study and observation, formerly £ a peculiarly conservative attitude in regard to the roblems of Greek archaeology. Since the foundation of the German nstitute in 1874, Athenian topography has to a large extent become a speciality of German scholars, among whom Wilhelm Dörpfeld occupies a pre-eminent position owing to his great architectural attainments and unrivalled local knowledge. Many of his bold and novel theories have provoked strenuous opposition, while others have met with general acceptance, except among scholars of the more conservative type.


Prehistoric Athens.—Numerous traces of the “Mycenaean * epoch have recently been brought to light in Athens and its neighbourhood. Among the monuments of this age discovered in the surrounding districts are the rockhewn tombs of Spata, accidentally revealed by a landslip in 1877, and the domed sepulchre at Menidi, near the ancient Acharnae, excavated by Lolling in 1879. Other “Mycenaean ” landmarks have been laid bare at Eleusis, Thoricus, Halae and Aphidna. These structures, however, are of comparatively minor importance in point of dimensions and decoration; they were apparently designed as places of sepulture for local chieftains, whose domains were afterwards incorporated in the Athenian realm by the avvoukiguós (synoecism) attributed


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