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would appear insignificant but for the contrast URANIA, one of the nine Muses, daughter it presents to the great regions of plains that of Zeus by Mnemosyne. She was regarded as spread from its W. flank over central Russia the muse of astronomy, and was usually repreand from its E. side into Siberia. Its course is sented with a little staff pointing at a celestial nearly due N. and S. over an extent, as usually globe. estimated, of 19° or 20°, with a breadth of URANIUM, a metal, the protoxide of which, about 40 miles. On the S. it commences on supposed to be the metal itself, was discovered the right bank of the Ural river at the Kir- in 1789 by Klaproth in the mineral pitch blende, gheez steppe, in about lat. 51° N.; but high and was named by him after the planet Uranus, lands may be traced still further S. into the re- which was discovered in 1781. The metal gion lying between the lake of Aral and the itself was not really separated until M. Peligot Caspian sea. On the N. its termination is at obtained it in 1840 by decomposing its chloride the Kara sea, or Karskaya gulf of the Arctic by means of potassium or sodium. Thus proocean, though its continuation is marked in duced, it is partly in the form of a black powthe rocky hills on the W. side of Nova Zembla. der, and in part composed of silvery lamina The highest summit of this portion of the range, which can be filed and are somewhat ductile. named Glassovskoy, is about 2,500 feet above The metal dissolves in dilute acids, setting free
The average elevation of the Ural hydrogen gas. In the air it undergoes no mountains is probably less than 2,000 feet change at common temperatures; but when above the level of the sea, and its highest sum- moderately heated it takes fire and burns with mits do not exceed 6,000 feet. Much of the a remarkably white and shining light. So range blends so gradually into the plains at its little heat is evolved, that a piece of paper upon sides that it has little of the mountainous char- which the burning metal is placed is not ig. acter, and is crossed by easy roads, as that by nited. The product of its combustion is a deep which Ekaterinburg is reached from Russia. green oxide. Uranium is represented by the The highest summit is said to be Deneshkin symbol U, and its cheinical equivalent is 60. Kamen, to the N. of lat. 60°. Other principal In its chemical relations it resembles iron and summits are Konskakofskoy Kamen, 5,397 ft. manganese. It forms several compounds with high; Tremel or Iremel, 5,075 ft. ; Constanti- oxygen, one of which, the black oxide (200, nov Kamen, 5,000 ft.; and Taganai, 3,592 ft. 0,0), forms about 80 per cent. of the mineral It is only in the extremo northern part that the pitchblende. The sesquioxide (U903) performs mountains remain covered with snow during the part both of an acid and a base, and is the the summer. In general, the chain is clothed oxide of what are known as the yellow salts of with forests of the gigantic pinus cembra, above uranium. The compounds of uranium are emwhich are often uplifted rugged ledges of rock ployed chiefly in giving yellowish hues to glass of most picturesque forms, and frequently over- and porcelain. The peculiar yellow tint with grown with pæonies, roses, and geraniums. greenish or opaline reflections seen in Bohemian The rocks of which these mountains are com- glass is derived from compounds of uranium. posed, as described by Sir Roderick Murchison, This uranium glass is remarkable for exhibiting resemble those of the Appalachian mountains. with great distinctness the phenomenon of The lower groups are silurian strata metamor- “ epipolic dispersion of light,” described a few phosed into crystalline rocks, which for the years ago by Prof. Stokes and Sir David Brewmost part are talcose schists, quartzites, and ster. These compounds are also of great value limestones. To these succeed the upper silu- in porcelain painting, mineral pitchblende being rian, devonian, and carboniferous, the strata used to a considerable extent at Joachimsthal of which are also more or less altered, though in Bohemia, where it is converted into uranate still retaining traces of their characteristic fog- of soda for this purpose. It produces an orange sils. A marked contrast is observed in the ap- color in the enamelling fire, and a tine black in pearance of these rocks on the European and the furnace in which the porcelain is baked. Asiatic slopes. On the former the strata are in- The uranate of potash is of a fine orange color, deed contorted, fractured, and partially chang- and has been proposed as a paint. It is found ed; while in the centre, as on the eastern accompanying various ores of silver and lead in slopes, the masses consist everywhere either several of the mining districts of Bohemia of highly altered and crystalline silurian strata, Hungary, and Saxony. Uranium is found in a or of the eruptive rocks which penetrate them. number of other minerals in combination with It is in these formations, especially where the lime as a sulphate or carbonate ; also with coptalcose and chloritic schists are traversed by per and lime; and in the hydrated phosphate veinstones of quartz or cut by dikes of igneous of uranium and lime, known as uranite, of which rocks, that gold is found. In the debris from the oxide forms 62.7 per cent. The lime is somethese are situated the gold washings, which times replaced by oxide of copper, when the furnish the chief portion of this metal and of mineral, in beautiful green crystals, is known platinum to the Russian government. (See as chalcolite or copper uranite. Fine speciEKATERINBURG, Gold, and Platinum.) There mens of these are found near Redruth and elseare also important mines of iron and copper; where in Cornwall. and diamonds, emeralds, and various other pre- URANUS, in Greek mythology. See Calls. cious stones are found in the same region. URANUS, THE PLANET. See Astronomy.
URBAN, the name of 8 popes, of whom the papal see he was archbishop of Bari. He was following are the most important. I. Urban II. elected successor of Gregory XI. in 1378 by (Odo of LAGNY), born in Châtillon-sur-Marne, the cardinals assembled at Rome; but the cardied July 29, 1099. He was archdeacon of dinals who were residents of Avignon did not Rheims, and afterward provost of Cluny. Greg. recognize him, and in union with some of the ory VII. made him bishop of Ostia, and sent him Roman cardinals, who declared his election a in 1084 to the emperor Henry IV. to settle the compulsory one, elected Count Robert of Genecontroversy respecting investitures. He was va pope under the name of Clement VII. Thus elected the successor of Victor III. in 1088, at began what is known as the great schism in Terracina, as the see of Rome was occupied by the Roman Catholic church. Clement was the antipope Clement III. Urban was at once recognized by France, Scotland, Spain, Savoy, recognized by all the Christian princes except Lorraine, and Naples, and he resided in AviHenry IV., who, with all the bishops of Ger- gnon; Urban was recognized by England, the many but 5, sustained Clement, and the king Netherlands, Scandinavia, Italy, Hungary, Boof England, who for some time remained neu- hemia, Poland, and the German emperor Charles tral. The antipope had to flee from Rome IV. The two popes, with the aid of their allies, in 1089, and a council convoked by Urban ex- carried on war against each other until the communicated Clement, the emperor, and their death of Urban. When Queen Joanna of adherents. In 1091 Clement returned, under Naples, who had supported Urban with an the protection of an imperial army, and Ur- army, abandoned his cause, the pope anointed ban fled for protection to Count Roger of Charles of Durazzo king of Naples; but soon he Apulia; but in 1093 he once more took pos- fell out with the latter also, and excommunisession of Rome, although one of the forts cated him. Urban was besieged by Charles in remained until his death in the hands of the Nocera, and fled in 1386 to Genoa and Lucca, antipope. By his order a council at Autun but in 1388 returned to Rome. He ordered in 1094 excommunicated Philip I. of France the year of jubilee to be celebrated every 33 for having repudiated his wife Bertha and years, instead of every 50 as before, and apmarried Bertrada. When Conrad, a son of pointed the first for the year 1990. IV. URBAN Henry IV., declared himself against his father, VIII. (Maffeo BARBERINI), born in Florence Urban recognized him as emperor. At a synod in 1568, died in Rome, July 29, 1644. Under in Piacenza in 1094, he condemned the doctrine the pontificate of Gregory XIV. he was gov. of Berengarius on the eucharist. At the coun- ernor of Fano, and under Clement VIII. papal cil of Clermont (1095) he called on the Chris- prothonotary; in 1604 he was appointed archtian nations to deliver the holy sepulchre at bishop of Nazareth (in partibus infidelium) Jerusalem from the Mussulmans, and thus gave and ambassador to Paris, in 1605 cardinal presan impulse to the crusades. At the council of byter, and in 1608 archbishop of Spoleto. He Bari in 1098, he made a fruitless attempt to was elected successor of Gregory XV., Aug. 6, effect a union of the Greek and Latin churches. 1623. He was a patron of sciences and arts, Urban was one of the most influential popes but left the government mostly to his relations, of the middle ages. He declared the election who favored France, and monopolized the most of a pope independent of the assent of the Ro- important offices. Through one of his relatives man emperor, vigorously enforced the law of he was involved in a war with the duke of celibacy, and forbade bishops and priests to Parma in 1642, which he was obliged to conaccept ecclesiastical offices from the hands of clude in 1644 by an unfavorable peace. He laymen. II. URBAN V. (GUILLAUME GRIMOARD), bestowed upon the cardinals, the three clerical born in the diocese of Mende, died Nov. 13, electors of Germany (the archbishops of Mentz, 1370. He was a member of the Benedictine Cologne, and Treves), and the grand master of order, abbot of Auxerre in 1353 and of Mar- the knights of Malta, the title most eminent seilles in 1358, and papal legate in Naples and eminentissimus), which led to a long controSicily, and was elected in 1362, at Avignon, versy with Venice. He condemned the docsuccessor of Innocent VI. He went in 1367 to trine of Jansenius and the system of Galileo, Rome, but in 1370 returned to Avignon. In established the college of the propaganda, is1369 the Greek emperor John Palæologus him- sued a revised edition of the Roman breviary, self visited Rome, abjured the peculiar tenets of gave to the bull In Cæna Domini its present the Greek church, and acknowledged the su- form, and forbade priests the use of snuff in premacy of the pope. In 1370 Urban sent mis- church under pain of excommunication. A sionaries to the Tartars and an embassy to Geor- volume of his poems procured him membergia, as the churches of Georgia had joined the ship in the Accademia dei Gelati at Bologna. Greek church. He was the first pope who bless- URBANA, a post village and township, the ed a golden rose for princes (he presented it to capital of Champaign co., Ohio, at the crossing the queen of Naples), and the last who resided of the Columbus and Indianapolis and the Sanin Avignon. He was a patron of scholars, and dusky, Dayton, and Cincinnati railroads, 46 m. praised by his contemporaries as entirely free W. from Columbus and 98 N. W. from Cinfrom nepotism. III. URBAN VI. (BARTOLOM- cinnati; pop. about 4,500. It is finely situated MEO DI Prignano), born in Naples, died in and well built, and has several manufactories, Rome in 1389. Before his accession to the 2 newspaper offices, 2 banks, and a large union
school. It is the seat of Urbana university, of the leading Doctrines of Caloric,” which founded in 1850 by the New Jerusalem church, was subsequently published in the “ Philoand having in 1861 8 professors and teachers sophical Transactions." Within the next few and 21 students in the collegiate department; years he published a "Dictionary of Chemisand of the Urbana collegiate institute, a female try” (1821), a translation of “Berthollet on seminary under the charge of the United Pres- Dyeing" (1822), a “System of Geology" (1829), byterian church, having a large and elegant and numerous papers on chemical subjects. In edifice with extensive grounds and 6 teachers. 1830 he removed to London, and was appointed
URBINO (anc. Urbinum Hortense), a fortified analytical chemist to the board of customs, an city of Italy, capital of the province of Urbino occupation which suggested and supplied mae Pesaro, situated on a hill, 20 m. S. W. from terials for his succeeding works. These comPesaro, and about the same distance from the prise "The Philosophy of Manufactures" (1835), Adriatic; pop. about 7,000. It is a walled “The Cotton Manufacture of Great Britain town, and has a fine government house, former- compared with that of other countries" (1836), ly the ducal palace, containing a collection of and his well known “Dictionary of Arts, Mansculptures and antiquities; the Palazzo Albani, ufactures, and Mines" (1839), which has passed a cathedral, and several churches and convents. through several editions in America and Eng. It is the see of an archbishop, and has a uni- land, the last of which, enlarged and edited by versity, a theological seminary, and an academy Robert Hunt, was published in 1860 (3 vols. Sro.). of sciences and literature. It has a large man- UREA. See URINE. ufactory of pins, and 4 annual fairs. The uni- UREDO, a genus of entophytous fungi reversity was founded in 1671, and in 1860 had sembling heaps of colored dust, and escaping 20 professors and 72 students. — Urbino is a from the tissues of plants by the bursting of city of considerable antiquity. Pliny and Ta- their epidermis. Their origin was for a long citus both mention it, the latter as the place time a matter of much uncertainty. The subwhere Fabius Valens was put to death in A. D. ject has been lately studied with care by Tu69. Numerous inscriptions still extant prove lasne, who proved them in many instances to its importance at that period. In A. D. 538 it be rudimentary forms of other fungi and imperwas besieged and taken by Belisarius. After fectly developed conditions. The uredos are that event it continued to be a place of note, very often injurious in agriculture, species being and during the middle ages was the seat of a known to the farmers as bunt, smut, burnt ear, race of independent dukes. Raphael was born &c., when attacking the seeds of the cereals, here, and his house is still preserved.
or rust, red rag, red gum, &c., when found on URBINO E PESARO, a province of the the stems and leaves of grain and grasses. The Marches, in the kingdom of Italy, formerly a subject is treated at considerable length by legation of the Papal States, bounded N. by Burnett in his “Outlines of Botany” (London, Forli, N. E. by the Adriatic, s. by Ancona, 1835); by Prof. Henslow in the " Journal of Macerata, and Perugia, and W. by Perugia and the Royal Agricultural Society" (vol. ii., LORthe Tuscan district of Arezzo; area, 1,358 sq. don, 1841); and by Tulasne in Annales des m.; pop. 257,751, about equally divided be- sciences naturelles (3d series, Paris, 1854.) A tween the districts of Pesaro and Urbino. The treatise by A. C. Corda on "The Brand in Ceresurface is mountainous. The soil, especially in als," with figures of the species, has been transthe valleys, is fertile, producing various sorts lated for the “ American Journal of Agriculture of grain, flax, hemp, the olive, and the vine. and Science,” by E. Goodrich Smith, and sepaThe principal rivers are the Metauro, Cesano, rately published (Albany, N. Y., 1847). The Foglia, and Marecchia. Horned cattle, sheep, several species of uredo in America, in common swine, bees, and silkworms are extensively with like cryptogamic plants of low developreared. The province is formed from the an- ment of structure, are identical in many incient duchy of Urbino, and occupies part of the stances with those abroad. old territory of Umbria. Capital, Urbino. URFE, HONORÉ D', a French author, born in
URCHIN FISH. See Sea PORCUPINE. Marseilles in 1567, died in Villefranche in 1625. URE, ANDREW, a Scottish chemist, born in He was descended from a noble family, and Glasgow in 1778, died in London, Jan. 2, 1857. after leaving college entered at the head of a He was educated at the universities of Glasgow company of 50 men the army of Henry IV. and Edinburgh, and, having taken the degree On his return he found Diane de Château-Moof M.D., was in 1802 appointed professor of raud, a rich and beautiful heiress of his district, chemistry and natural philosophy in the An- to whom he had been attached in his youth, dersonian institution at Glasgow. Upon the married to his elder brother Anne d'Urfé. establishment of the astronomical observa- This couple, after living together 20 years, tory in Glasgow he was placed in charge of it, were divorced by mutual consent, and in order and took up his residence in the building. In to retain the property in the family Honoré 1818 appeared his first important work, a sought and obtained the hand of Diane. The “Systematic Table of Materia Medica,” with lady however was so passionately fond of hunta dissertation on the action of medicines, fol- ing, that she kept a large number of dogs, lowed in 1818 by a remarkable paper enti- whom she allowed in her sleeping apartments. tled “New Experimental Researches on some The insupportable smell caused by these animals led him to retire to a small estate near mim were two images personifying revelation Nice in Piedmont, where he composed L'Astrée. and truth placed between the folds of the The first part appeared in 1610, the second in breastplate. The first time they are mention1612, and two more in 1618; and after the deathed in the Bible, they are referred to as things of D'Urfé a conclusion compiled from his man- already familiar to the Israelites: “And thou uscripts was added by his secretary Baro. The shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the work was imitated by numerous authors, and Urim and the Thuimim.” (Exod. xxviii. 30.) from it a great number of subjects for dramas It is unknown when this oracular method of and paintings were taken. Beside this, D'Urfé consulting God ceased. There is no instance wrote La Syreine, avec d'autres pièces (1611 and of it in Scripture during the time of the first 1618); Épitres morales (1598, 1603, and 1620); temple, and it certainly was not practised durand La sylvanire, fable bocagère.
ing that of the second. There is a saying URFEY, THOMAS D'. See D'URFEY. among the Jews that God spoke to his people
URI, a canton of Switzerland, bounded N. during the tabernacle by the Urim and Thumby the canton of Schwyz, E. and S. E. by Gla- mim, during the first temple by the prophets, rus and Grisons, S. by Ticino, and W. by Valais, and during the second by the Bath-Kol. Bern, and Unterwalden ; area, 418 sq. m.;
URINE, the excrementitious fluid secreted pop. in 1860, 14,761. It is divided into the by the kidneys, by means of a structure dedistricts of Uri and Urseren, and Altorf is scribed in the article KIDNEY, transmitted the capital. The surface is exceedingly moun- slowly but continuously by the ureters to the tainous, many of the summits rising to an ele- bladder, and there retained until the distention vation of 8,000 feet above the sea, and several of the organ requires its evacuation. It is seexceeding 10,000 feet. The best known, though creted from arterial blood, and expelled by the by no means the most elevated summit, is that agency of the abdominal muscles assisted by of St. Gothard, and the highest points are Gal- the contraction of the walls of the bladder, the lenstock, Sustenhorn, Scheerhorn, Spannorter, sphincter at its opening being relaxed during Windgelle, Bristenstock, Urirothstock, and the act of micturition. Its quantity varies with Mutthorn. The only practicable outlets from the amount of water in the blood, which it the canton are by the road to Italy, which regulates, also removing from the body solid leads over the pass of St. Gothard, 6,700 feet matters in proportion to the waste of the tisabove the level of the sea, and by the lake sues and the surplus of azotized material in the of Lucerne. Some of the head streams of both system. The importance of this secretion is the Rhine and Rhône have their rise in Uri; shown by the injurious effects arising from the but the principal river is the Reuss, which rises retention of its elements in the blood, in uraon the S. side of Mt. St. Gothard, receives the mia, as it has been called. On account of the greater part of the drainage of the canton, and ease with which this secretion may be collectflows into the lake of Lucerne after a N. course ed, both in health and disease, and the facility of 30 m., during which it descends 4,500 feet. with which its ingredients may be separated The most extensive valley lies upon the banks by chemistry, its nature, purposes, and alteraof this stream. It is narrow and rugged about tions are very well known. Fresh, healthy the head, but becomes wider and level toward human urine should be perfectly transparent, its lower extremity. The climate is cold, and amber yellow, with a peculiar but not disstrong winds blow from the mountains with agreeable odor, and a bitterish saline taste; it great violence. Some grain, rape, hemp. pota- contains a very small amount of pavementtoes, and vegetables are cultivated in the lower epithelium cells and mucus-corpuscles, and has grounds, and fruit, walnuts, and chestnuts are a well marked acid reaction; after a time it grown. The inhabitants speak German, are grows turbid, with a mucous sediment, unpleassimple in their habits, and almost all Roman ant odor, and alkaline reaction from the formaCatholics ; few foreigners are found among tion of carbonate of ammonia and precipitation them. The government is a pure democracy, of the earthy carbonates; if turbid when first and every male inhabitant over 20 years of age passed, it may be considered abnormal. The is entitled to vote for the principal officers. average amount, according to Prout, passed in URIC ACID. See URINE.
24 hours by a person who drinks no more than URIM AND THUMMIM (“light and truth"), the wants of the system require, is about 30 two Hebrew words, the application of which is oz. in summer and 40 oz. in winter. It is well disputed. According to one opinion, they de- known that the urinary and cutaneous secrenote the four rows of brilliant precious stones tions are complementary of each other, in rein the breastplate of the high priest, upon each gard to the quantity of Auid eliminated, one of which was engraved the name of one of the being increased while the other is diminished; sons of Jacob. When an appeal was made to cold, by checking the exhalation from the skin, God by the high priest in difficult cases, the increases the amount of urine secreted. The divine answer was manifested in some way by average specific gravity, taking the year round, means of this breastplate, or, in the opinion of according to the same authority, is about 1.020, some commentators, by an audible voice speak- and according to Simon 1.012. From the varying to the priest arrayed in full pontificals. ing amount of azotized food and watery fluids According to other critics, the Urim and Thum- habitually ingested, the proportion of solid
33.80 to 49.68
10.18 to 11.58
matter in the urine may vary from 20 to 70 in senting its essential characters, may pass off 1,000 parts; taking 100 parts of solid residue, by the gastric and intestinal mucous membrane. the principal components are, according to by the lachrymal, salivary, and mammary different chemists, as follows:
glands, by the ears, nose, skin, and even by Urea...
serous membranes; these metastases are espeExtractive matter, ammonia salts, and chlo.
cially frequent in hysteria.-Space will not ride of sodium
29.00 to 42.60 permit here any description of the diseases of Alkaline sulphates... Alkaline phosphates.
the human urine, a subject of so great interest Phosphates of lime and magnesia....
to the physician that many volumes have been — The most important of the organic constitu- devoted to it; some of the most important of ents of the urine is urea ; this is due to the them have been noticed in previous articles. metamorphosis of the azotized components of When the secretion is very abundant, it may the tissues (especially the muscular) and of the constitute either the symptom diuresis, or the blood, and gives to the secretion its character- disease diabetes; when painful, it is called dyistic properties; the amount excreted in 24 suria; when suppressed, ischuria ; and when hours in a child of 8 years is about 208 grains, drop by drop, with pain, burning, and spasm, in the adult female 295, in the adult male 433, strangury; in Bright's disease it is albuminous, and in the old man of 85 years 125 grains, thé whence this affection has been named albumigreat proportion in children and the small in nuria; in one form of diabetes, it is highly the aged depending respectively on the rapidity charged with sugar; when the secretion canand on the slowness of the interstitial changes; not be retained, the symptom is called inconit is usually increased in febrile diseases, where tinence; very frequently the cylindrical linings waste is rapid and supply small. Uric acid is and the fibrinous moulds of the uriniferous the next most important of the organic prod- tubes are detected in the fluid. Man being an ucts of the urine; its formation is probably an- omnivorous feeder, his urine differs consideraterior to that of urea; it is increased by azo- bly from that of purely carnivorous and purely tized food, and diminished or converted into herbivorous animals; even in him it varies urea by exercise. Dr. Bence Jones has shown much according to peculiarities of diet. In that there is no relation between the acidity carnivora it is generally acid when discharged, of the urine and the absolute amount of uric becoming rapidly alkaline and ammoniacal; in acid which it may contain ; this acid is some- herbivora it is alkaline when passed, and con. times in excess in febrile diseases. The acidity tains a large quantity of alkaline and earthy of the secretion in the healthy state depends carbonates; in carnivora it contains about 7 on the presence of the acid phosphate of soda, per cent. of urea, is clear, bright yellow, and though in disease free organic acids are pres- of a specific gravity of 1.059 to 1.076; in herent; it increases and diminishes inversely with bivora it is turbid when passed, from the alkathe acidity of the stomach. The extractive line carbonates, of somewhat lower specific matters, except such as are convertible into gravity than in the preceding, with about 1 urea, are rich in carbon and poor in nitrogen. per cent. of urea, and hippuric acid } per cent. The alkaline phosphates are most abundant (in the ox) to 1 per cent. (in the horse). In when, from disease or excessive use of the birds the urine is a thin paste, hardening by brain, there is a too great disintegration of the exposure, consisting principally of urate of nervous tissue. The earthy phosphates, though ammonia, that of the carnivorous families conin small proportion, are very important in ref- taming a considerable amount of urea.
In erence to the precipitates they form, for which serpents it is a white earthy mass, consisting see Calculi, Gout, and Gravel.' Tea and of uric acid with potassa, soda, and ammonia; coffee diminish the amount of urea and phos- in the bullfrog, according to Dr. John Davy, phoric acid in the urine, by retarding the ac- its specific gravity is 1.003, and it contains area tivity of the metamorphic processes; the waste and chloride of sodium; in a large land torunder their stimulus being less, the demand toise, according to Marchand, it was faintly for food is less, an important fact in a dietetic acid, looking like pus, with 6.40 of urea and and therapeutic point of view; alcohol does 17.25 of uric acid in 1,000 parts.—Beside the the same, but by obstructing the oxidation of authors quoted above, the following may bo the excrementitious matters, and causing their mentioned as giving information of great retention in the blood; tobacco, also, retards value : Berzelius, Bright, Becquerel, Dumas, the metamorphosis of the tissues, and upon this Liebig, Lehmann, Frerichs, Golding Bird, Berdoubtless depends the instinctive craving for nard, Dalton, and Draper. this article when once employed, enabling a URQUHART, David, a British author and man the better to withstand a short allowance politician, born in Braclanwell
, county of Croof food. Alkalies and their carbonates accel- marty, Scotland, in 1805. In his youth he erate metamorphosis, and thus increase the spent several years upon the continent, and solids of the urine; diuretic medicines, which then entered the university of Oxford, where cause a larger amount of fluid to be passed off he devoted his attention chiefly to political by the kidneys, do not necessarily increase, economy and the oriental languages. In 1827 but often actually diminish, the quantity of he visited Greece with Lord Cochrane, after solids thus excreted. Urine, or å fluid pre- the peace of Adrianople went to Constantino