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when away from home. Nearly everybody has some food limitations, and knows perfectly well there are certain things in common table use which he may not eat with impunity. The average traveller is apt to consider himself relieved from such embargo, when in fact he should exercise a greater caution than at any other time. Persons should consider a visit to the Fair in its proper light an unnatural tax upon one's physical strength and vital forces. Economy of both is a serious necessity."

THE following words from Ruskin, discussing the condition of mind in Turner who, he says, did his work aiming solely to do it unselfishly and well, and from which he infers that all good work is done for love only, have a remarkable application to the teacher :

"So far as you desire to possess rather than to give; so far as you look for power to command instead of to bless; so far as your own prosperity seems to issue out of contest or rivalry of any kind with other men or other nations; so long as the hope before you is for supremacy instead of love; and your desire is to be greatest instead of least; first instead of last so long as you are serving the Lord of all that is last and least-the last enemy that shall be destroyed, Deathyou shall have death's crown, with the worm coiled in it; and death's wages with the worm feeding on them; kindred of the earth you shall yourself become, saying to the grave, "Thou art my father,' and to the worm, Thou art my mother and my sister.'"

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man's works since he has been upon the planet.

Read what is found in these two numbers-what those most competent to speak have written-then go to this greatest of summer schools, or not, as seems best."Ten thousand University Extensions and Chautauquas concentrated in its educational advantages," is what Mr. Depew says. And Col. Parker, addressing the teachers of America: "I cannot urge upon you too earnestly, nor too strongly, to make a close, protracted study of the Fair. You cannot come too soon nor stay too long." So of hundreds and thousands.

An aggregation of wonders-showing the advance of the race from savage to civilized life; the development of man's power over Nature by which he has annihiliated time and space, compelling her forces to serve his pleasure or his need; things most useful in the world, things most beautiful; and the processes by which they come to be through growth, or manufacture, or high artistic culture on many lines of effort-it is the World at its high-water mark of inspiration and evolution on exhibition in Jackson Park, and it is to be seen now or never. The work of installation is completed; all exhibits are in place. Half the period of six months for which the exhibition was announced will have passed when these lines come under the eye of the reader. Within a few weeks gates and doors will be closed. Presto! Its palaces of enchantment have vanished -to be seen no more save in the light of memory or upon the page of the historian. It is, indeed, now or never!

IN

AUXILIARY SUPERVISION.

N endeavoring to reach a closer supervision of the schools by experts in the art of teaching, we have got so far along that boroughs and townships with a population of not less than 5,000 can have a superintendent of their own; but beyond that the Legislature seems to be persistently unwilling to go, and if we can't have a District Superintendent in every township or smaller borough, perhaps the County Superintendency can be so expanded in its functions as to increase its efficiency and approximate the desired closer supervision.

The annual report of the School De

partment for the year 1859 refers to this subject in the following terms. In speaking of the County Superintendency it

says:

"When its duties are properly performed, it is the hardest worked office under the government, except in a few of the smaller counties; and in the larger counties-which have generally been amongst the best administered-the labors imposed are excessive, and sometimes severely try the courage of the most faithful and devoted superintendents. The annual examination of from four to eight hundred teachers, and the visitation, mostly during inclement portions of the year, of from two hundred to four hundred and fifty schools, scattered over a territory of from eight to twelve hundred square miles, not always of the smoothest topography, besides holding institutes and addressing public meetings, presents a programme of operations from which the most exacting opponent of the system would shrink. Yet none of the duties enjoined by law can be relinquished, but their range should rather be enlarged than otherwise. But as at present constituted, the friends of the system feel that in the larger counties too much is imposed upon one man.

Some superintendents have, at times, and with great advantage to all concerned, employed and paid one or more of their best teachers to aid in the examinations, or visit schools. It is respectfully recommended that this practice be sanctioned and regulated by law, as the best means of meeting the difficulty. There is needed with us from one to three assistants in the large counties, according to their size and the amount of labor to be performed. The only difficulty is in providing for their compensation."

No legislative action was ever taken on this recommendation. The times were not ripe for it, and the additional appropriations required could not then have been had. But public sentiment is more favorable now with regard to the office, and the revenues of the State are so much larger now than then that the auxiliary help proposed for County Superintendents could doubtless be provided if legislative aid should be invoked for that purpose. There will be time enough to think about it before the next meeting of the legislature, and public sentiment can be developed and crystallized by that time so that favorable action can be taken in some form in the direction indicated.

It needs no argument to show how greatly the efficiency and usefulness of County Supervision could be increased by the proposed arrangement. With the number of assistants suggested, if bright

and intelligent men, co-operating with the County Superintendent and working under his general direction and guidance, the operations of our common schools would be vitalized as never before. The additional salaries required would be of small moment in comparison with the augmented benefits conferred upon the common schools.

TOWNSHIP HIGH SCHOOLS.

HE following item which we clip from

a

of immense significance and value in the developing life of our public schools in the rural districts. It shows by actual demonstration what can be done in township districts to elevate the character and broaden the scope of our public schools, when local public sentiment sanctions or demands better school facilities at home, and School Directors avail themselves of the power and authority conferred upon them by law, to make the schools equal to the wants of the community and the enlarging needs of the rising generation.

"The School Board of Easttown township, Chester county, met Tuesday afternoon, June 13, and elected Prof. J. A. Clark, of Coatesville, a graduate of Lafayette and Princeton Colleges, as principal of the new high school to be opened with the Fall term of school. This school curriculum will embrace a four years' course, preparing young men and young ladies for the best colleges in the country, and also a business course of one and two years, preparing young men and women for book-keepers, stenographers and type-writers. This course, as well as the other departments of our public schools, will be opened to the scholars of surrounding boroughs and townships, at the cost of tuition. This high school is to be made, as the grammar schools of our townships have been made, second to none anywhere."

The policy here exemplified in practice is nothing new in theory. Ever since the enactment of the school law of 1854, it has been possible to grade the common schools in the rural districts and establish township high schools whenever School Directors should decide to do so, and that policy has been strenuously urged by the School Department in all parts of the State. But the evolution of public sentiment in this direction as in many others being very slow, more than a whole generation has passed away before this starting point has been reached in practice. Having been reached at last, the example

districts in the State where a high school as well as grammar schools have been established, we are not able at this moment to call them to mind. We should be very glad to have a list of such townships for publication, to show what has been done in this direction, and as an incentive to other districts to go and do likewise.

will be contagious; the cause will mové | single year. If there be other township forward with accelerated momentum, and complaints of the inefficiency and insufficiency of the common school work will have little ground to rest upon. Easttown school district has placed itself in the vanguard of progress, and stands out in the educational firmament like a star of the first magnitude. Its School Directors are entitled to the highest meed of praise for the stand they have taken in behalf of the educational interests of the district. Are there not scores of other township districts where the same thing can be done, and well done, if the people want or are willing to have the best educational opportunities for their children in their own immediate vicinity, and without any other expense than the annual school tax levied and collected for the common benefit of the community in which they live? We never could understand why the people in paying school tax should not have the full worth of their money in return, in well-organized schools well administered, instead of inferior schools inefficiently managed.

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It should be noted that the one and two years' course in the Easttown programme need not of necessity be confined to the three utilitarian branches named. The Directors have entire control over the course of study, and can enlarge or limit or change it to suit local needs or local public sentiment.

What a quickening influence this new arrangement will exert upon the hopes and ambition and efforts of bright-minded and promising school children! We mean, of course, such children as for various reasons cannot reach up towards the higher education, because they cannot afford to go to distant seminaries, academies, and schools in this or other States, but now find it wisely brought within their reach at their own doors, and almost under the shadow of their own homes, where parents can still have the benefit and comfort of their services and society, while their minds are being informed and trained for the highest usefulness.

DEPARTMENT.

DEPARTMENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, HARRISBURG, August, 1893. THE gentlemen here named have recently been elected Borough Superintendents in the following districts: Mr. C. D. Oberdorf, Sunbury, Northumberland county; Mr. Samuel H. Dean, Mt. Carmel, Northumberland county; Mr. E. W. Moore, Braddock, Allegheny county; and Mr. John C. Kendall, Homestead, Allegheny county.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.

OFFICIAL DECISIONS AND INFORMATION.

1. Question: Will the Department of Public Instruction give definite instruction to School Boards as to the scope of the new law providing for Free Text-Books and School Supplies, and the duty of the Directors in carrying its provisions into effect?

Answer: The Act of Assembly approved June 25, 1885, conferred upon the several Boards of School Directors and Controllers

permissive authority to purchase text-books out of the school fund, and to supply these books free of cost to the pupils for use in the schools of their respective districts. This Act was so amended by the Act of May 18, 1893, as to make it mandatory upon School Directors hereafter to provide at the expense of the district not only the text-books, but also all other necessary school supplies.

This amended act goes into immediate operation from the beginning of the current school year, dating from the first Monday in June, 1893. The design of the Act evidently is to relieve parents and pupils hereafter from the necessity of purchasing text-books and school supplies for use in our public schools. It is now the imperative duty of the several Boards of Directors and Controllers to make provision for furnishing and equipping their schools with school books and with the supplies generally needed by the pupils for daily use in the schools, such as slates, pencils, papers, pens, ink, tablets,

etc.

There may be instances in which the

patrons of the schools will cause their children to use the books in their possession so long as these books are in good condition and do not differ from those adopted by the Board. It is well, however, in this connection, for school officers, and all other parties concerned, to bear in mind the fact that parents and children cannot be required or compelled to purchase books directly as heretofore; and whilst it is no doubt wise to urge pupils to use the books in their posession, for the purpose of lessening the immediate outlay of money, they can not be obliged to use their own books, because the duty of providing books and supplies for use in the schools now devolves upon the Directors and Controllers having jurisdiction in the district and not upon the patrons of the schools, except in so far as they may be lawfully taxed for school purposes, thereby contributing their equitable share to the general school fund of the district.

Books in all the required branches of study are to be provided by the directors for all grades of the public schools, including the High School.

2. Question: What change, if any, has been made in the date of Labor Day, and how does it affect the schools?

Answer: The Directors of many school districts have been annoyed for some years by the fact that the first Monday in September was Labor Day and therefore a legal holiday. A recent Act of the Legislature changes Labor Day to the first Saturday in September, and this holiday will no longer interfere with school terms beginning on the first Monday in September.

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the same wording is repeated in the amended section. Shall we calculate the salaries upon the basis of one hundred and ninety schools, or do you advise us to regard the words "one hundred and ninety" as a mistake, and to base our calculations upon two hundred and ninety schools, as contemplated by the act of 1878?

I have the honor to be,
Very respectfully,
NATHAN C. SCHAEFFER,
[Supt. of Public Instruction.]

OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL, }
HARRISBURG, July 13, 1893.

DR. NATHAN C. SCHAEFFER,

Supt. of Public Instruction.

Dear Sir: I am in receipt of your communication of July 5th, referring to the act of May 28th, 1893, relating to the salaries of County Superintendents of common schools, and asking whether or not you should regard the words "one hundred and ninety schools," where they occur in said act, as a mistake, and base your calculations as to the minimum salaries of superintendents in certain counties upon "two hundred and ninety schools," as contemplated in the Act of April 29th, 1878. (P. L. 33.)

The Act of 1893 is entitled an amendment to the Act of 1878, amending the first section thereof by fixing the minimum salaries to be paid to said superintendents." So much of the Act of 1878 as it purports to amend has been misquoted, as you point out, in the Act of 1893, it being recited

that in all counties having over one hundred and ninety schools, &c.," instead of 'that in all counties having over two hundred and ninety schools, &c.'

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I am of the opinion that it was the manifest intention of the Legislature to reenact the Act of 1878 so far as it fixes the number of schools in the counties in which the salaries of superintendents shall not be less than fifteen hundred dollars. If the citation of the old Act were correct in the amendment and the same contained a general or special repealing clause, I would hesitate to advise you to disregard the words of the new enactment, even if there were doubt whether or not it correctly expressed the intention of the Legislature. But the misquotation of the old act in the recital of part of it, in the act of 1893, makes plain and obvious the error of the draftsman.

In Lancaster County 2's. Frey, 128 Penna. St., 599, following a long line of cases therein referred to, the Supreme Court held that the word "county," in the Act of Assembly was mistakenly written "city," and decided that such a mistake, apparent on the face of the Act, might be rectified by the context. "It falls within the province of the Courts to correct a merely clerical error even in an Act of Assembly, when, as it is written, it involves a manifest absurdity, and the error is plain and obvious.”

I regard the case you present such a one as is referred to in this decision. It nowhere appears either from the title or the context that the Legislature intended to alter or change the last proviso of the Act of April 29th, 1878, and I therefore advise and instruct you that your department should hold, as heretofore, that the minimum salary of fifteen hundred dollars is to apply to counties having over two hundred and ninety schools, or twelve hundred square miles of territory, or a school term exceeding seven and one-half months.

Very truly yours,

W. U. HENSEL,
Attorney-General.

PAYING SCHOOL DIRECTORS.

THE following is the veto message of Gov

ernor Pattison of the bill providing for payment of School Directors in attendance at the Triennial Convention for election of County Superintendents:

"It has heretofore been the policy of the Commonwealth not to permit any compensation to be paid directly or indirectly for persons serving in the office of School Director. It has always been assumed that public-spirited citizens, fit to fill this office, could be found to serve without compensation. The responsible duty of once in three years attending a convention to elect a County Superintendent is likely to be performed quite as well without compensation as with the pittance provided for in this bill.

"I have no reason to believe there is any public demand whatever from any but a very few of the small counties of the State for such legislation. In some of these it is reported to me that the practice of candidates. for County Superintendent, paying the expenses of Directors attending the convention to vote for them, has become an abuse. If so, the fault lies within the communities in which such practices prevail. The existing laws against bribery on the part of candidates for public positions, or of persons who elect them, are ample to meet such abuses, if rigidly enforced. There is no reason to saddle upon all the counties of the State the large aggregate expense liable to result from this bill, because of these rare instances in which the profligacy of candidates or the impecuniosity of Directors has led to abuses."

TEXT OF THE BILL VETOED.

AN ACT providing for the expenses of the school directors of this Commonwealth in attending the triennial convention to elect the county superintendent, and providing penalties for receiving any money or valuable thing for the attendance or vote at the same. SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in General As

sembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, That the board of school directors of any school district in this Commonwealth shall, immediately after the passage of this act, be authorized to pay out of the school fund of the district the expenses incurred thereafter by its members in attending the triennial convention of school directors called to elect a County Superintendent.

SEC. 2. That the expenses paid to each school director shall not exceed two dollars for the day the said convention shall be in session, and that only school directors in actual attendance at the meeting specified shall be entitled to receive pay. Any school director who shall accept or receive, directly or indirectly, any money or other valuable thing for his or her attendance at said triennial convention except as provided by this act, and any candidate before said convention or other person who shall give or promise to give any school director any money or other valuable thing for his or her attendance or vote, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be sentenced to pay a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars for each such offense.

SEC. 3. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed.

ITEMS FROM REPORTS.

ADAMS-Supt. Thoman: The second commencement of the Gettysburg High School was held May 25. The exercises were witnessed by a large and appreciative audience, including the parents and friends of the thirteen graduates. The room was tastefully decorated with flags, flowers, and evergreens, with the class motto, "Faithful work insures success," in a conspicuous place. All acquitted themselves with marked credit. Prof. Calvin Hamilton, president of the School Board, addressed the class.

CLARION-Supt. Beer: New Bethlehem is building a fine brick school-house. Callensburg has advertised for bids for the erection of a new school-house.

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