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syllables, and the accent may be shifted to the other syllable; further than this in the knowledge of metre it is. not necessary to go. He should learn to read the lines with a sense of their equal time, and should understand that a line with extra syllables is to be read in the same time (without eliding any syllable, however), as if it contained only the usual ten; otherwise he may lose the metrical effect of the hurried or checked lines, and with it the sympathy of the sound with the sense; and he should know that such irregularities are not purposeless and at random, but are all intended. The power to read verse, with a correct sense of its time, is a considerable part of the knowledge and interpretation of poetry, and is a gauge of the student's real acquisition; it is not difficult. to learn, and it may be easily encouraged and quickly developed by the recitation of passages set to be memorized. In this poem, the songs, the idyl, and the speeches of the Prince in the last part, especially that which describes his mother, should be so memorized.

As a whole, the poem is one of difficulty to the young; its subject-matter is in advance of their experience of life, its structure is complex, and its art is of a subtle and delicate kind that is more effective in proportion as one's literary knowledge increases. In many ways it is not adapted to beginners in the study of literature; but, on the other hand, its splendor of language, its eloquence, and its collegiate air recommend it; and its beauty and truth can be pointed out, and the student can be led to perceive them, if not fully to comprehend them. In what way such guidance can be given is indicated in the Introduction. It may be added here that the wiser method may be to adapt one's instruction to Tennyson's own mode of work, and direct attention to the details, the little pictures, the more melodious and perfect lines, the noble sentiments, the apt similes, the eloquent passages, and so allow the composite general effect to grow of itself out of the definitely known and felt details. The whole

might well be read through once for these, and a second time for the general scheme and impression. The familiarity which a second reading enforces would be a very great assistance in bringing about that ready receptivity and immediate response on the part of the student which seems to the editor the important matter. It is necessary to be patient with students of literature, at all times; they cannot understand, except through their experience of life, for poetry can strike no chord that does not already tremble in the heart under the hand of life; but as one grows, one is both more variously and more powerfully sensitive, and then literature gives up its meaning. Students may derive much or little at the time from such a work as 66 The Princess," but if what has been advanced above be right in thought, the best result will be a greater openness of the mind to the methods of appeal which poetry uses, and regard for its emotional and spiritual power. It will matter little whether a student has garnered a good deal of curious and interesting knowledge about matters spoken of in the poem; but if he has come to like and value ten lines of it only, that is the real gain, for they will be a standard of literature with him, a vital standard which has passed within and become part and parcel of his tastes.


[The following table includes, under "The Life of Tennyson," the principal biographical and bibliographical dates in his career, and under "Contemporary Literary History " the dates of the birth and death of his contemporaries in literature, and of the first book (except in a few instances) published by them, so far as such dates fall within the period, 1809-1892. The table is based upon Ryland's "Chronological Outlines of English Literature," Whitcomb's "Chronological Outlines of American Literature," Luce's "Handbook to Tennyson's Works," and Shepherd's "Bibliography of Tennyson." For further detail, especially in respect to private issues and poems contributed to periodicals Luce and Shepherd may be consulted.]


1809. Birth, August 6, at Somersby.

1811. Arthur Hallam born.

1816. Louth Grammar School.

1820. Tennyson leaves school.

1827. Poems by Two Brothers.

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1827. Poe, Tamerlane and other Poems. 1828. Cambridge: Trinity College, Octo-1828. Rossetti born. Hawthorne, Fanber 28. Meeting with Arthur


1829. Timbuctoo: Prize Poem.
1830. Poems Chiefly Lyrical. Journey to
the Pyrenees, with Arthur Hallam.
1831. Death of Tennyson's father.
1832. Poems (dated 1833).
1833. Death of Arthur Hallam, Septem-
ber 13.

1837. The Tennysons leave Somersby.


1831. Whittier, Legends of New England.
1832. Scott died.

1833. Carlyle, Sartor Resartus. R. Brown-
ing, Pauline.
1834. Coleridge died. Dickens, Sketches
by Boz. A. H. Hallam, Remains.
1837. Swinburne born. Emerson, Nature.
Thackeray, Yellowplush Papers.
1838. Mrs. Browning, The Seraphim and
other Poems.

1839. Longfellow, Voices of the Night.
1841. Lowell, A Year's Life. Newman,
Tracts for the Times, No. XC.

1842. Poems.

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1850. Poet Laureate, November. In Me- 1850. Wordsworth died.
moriam. Marries Emily Sellwood,
June 13; resides at Twickenham.

1852. Ode on the Death of the Duke of

Hallam Tennyson

born, August 11.

1853. Removes to Farringford.

1854. Charge of the Light Brigade. Lionel

Tennyson born, March 16.


1851. Cooper died.

Rossetti, The

1855. Maud and other Poems. D. C. L., 1855. Kingsley, Westward, Ho!


1857. Enid and Nimuë: or, The True and

the False.1

1858. George Eliot, Scenes from Clerical Life.

1859. [Four] Idylls of the King. Journey 1859. Macaulay, De Quincey, Irving, died. to Portugal, with Palgrave.

1861. Second journey to the Pyrenees.

1864. Enoch Arden, etc.

Darwin, Origin of Species. 1861. Mrs. Browning died.


1863. Thackeray died.


1864. Landor, Hawthorne, died.

1865. Refuses a baronetcy. Death of Ten-1865. Matthew Arnold, Essays in Criti

nyson's mother, February 21.

1867. Purchases Aldworth, Sussex.

1869. The Holy Grail and other Poems.

1872. Gareth and Lynette, and The Last


1875. Queen Mary.

1877. Harold.


1870. Dickens died. Rossetti, Poems.

1875. Kingsley died.

1878. Bryant died.

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1881. The Cup, acted at the Lyceum 1881. Carlyle, George Eliot, died.

1882. The Promise of May, acted at the 1882. Darwin, Rossetti, Longfellow, Emer

Globe Theatre.

1884. Made a peer as Baron of Aldworth

and Farringford. The Falcon and

The Cup published. Becket.

1885. Tiresias and other Poems.

1886. Locksley Hall Sixty Years After. Death of Lionel Tennyson, April|


son, died.

1 Privately printed, and published revised in Idylls of the King, 1859.

2 Written in 1828, printed and suppressed in 1833, and revised, printed, and suppressed in 1869, and now again revised and published, owing to the appearance of a pirated copy of the 1833 edition.

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