Page images

designated as the finding, the sorting, the trying-out and testing period of the public school system. Exploration of individual differences, the revelation of educational and vocational opportunities adaptable to individual differences, guidance of educational or vocational choice, equalization of opportunities, the adaptation of educational offerings to ascertained individual needs rather than the conforming of all pupils to one educational pattern, and the stimulation of educational or vocational vision which conditions all progress in secondary education,-all these and other purposes to adapt the educational program to the 'individual' are the objectives of the junior high school.

"The junior high school adapts its program of studies to the needs of early adolescent children as those needs are determined by modern social conditions, not by the social and vocational standards of Europe a hundred years ago. All adolescent pupils twelve years or more of age enter the junior high school before compulsory education laws release them from school attendance. The junior high school program widens their vision of the rich educational and vocational opportunities ahead of them. It gives them a foretaste of a training which it makes plain is a prerequisite to a successful and useful citizenship. It motivates secondary school life by a foreknowledge of education possibilities and vocational openings. It points the way to useful service by convincing each child at the threshold of adolescence that American society has a place for him, if he will but seek it and train for it.

"All this the junior high school does at the most critical point of a child's school career when the first option is offered of leaving school or entering unprepared upon vocational life. It has filled the gap between elementary and secondary education through which countless numbers of immature early adolescents have been lost to the public schools and thrust upon American vocational life wholly unfitted to meet its demands."**

In further definition of the junior high school I quote in part a paragraph from the Junior High School Chapter in the High School Manual published in 1922 by the Department of Public Instruction:

"There are three currents which find their confluence in the junior high school.


Quoted from the writer's article in the November 7, 1923 Educational Section of The New Republic.

comes from the elementary school, a second from the senior high school and the third from vocations and society. Accordingly, the program of studies is made up, in part, of a continuation of the elementary school's single curriculum but a review, i. e., a new view, of these courses in their articulated relation to secondary courses; in part, a pre-view of secondary courses but a rearrangement of former high school courses in 'their simpler aspects;' in part, a prevocational content from industry, commerce and the home which comprise the fine and practical arts and some electives; and finally, in part also, a liberal amount of social science materials and social and civic activities of junior citizenship that early adolescents may find their self-conscious social adjustment.

"It follows from the above definitions of what the junior high school is that no upper grade organization of two or more seventh and eighth grades in a grammar school can adequately provide the educational facilities for the above enriched program of studies. A junior high school building demands new facilities for science, practical arts shops for girls and boys, fine arts rooms, commercial education, prevocational training, health education, gymnasium, library, auditorium and facilities for a well organized social and civic program in active junior citizenship." Let me offer the following as the ninth reason in answer to our first question of "Why the Junior High School?"

9. Because it is the concrete expression of an educational purpose extending over a quarter century to reconstruct the school system to meet the demands of modern social and industrial life.

The greatest contribution of the junior high school to American education is its mission as an agency to effect reform in the whole public school system. "It is the outward manifestation of a sound new philosophy of education." (Johnston, Newlon, Pickkell, The Junior-Senior High School Administration, p. 151. Scribners.) "The junior high school is merely a symptom of expansion. It is a name for a whole series of experiments, all of which have grown out of a desire to remake the school so as to meet the requirements of an expanding educational program." (Charles H. Judd, Fundamental Educational Reforms. The Elementary School Journal, January, 1923.)

The tenth reason for the junior high school


which does not complete the reasons for its existence but which is and will continue to be its chief crown of glory is this

10. Because it is 100 per cent American. The junior high school had its birth as an institution in America. It is the first public school unit not imported. It is dedicated to American youth. It is designed to solve many pressing problems in the development of the American school system. It is consecrated to fulfil democratic ideals in American secondary schools. It guarantees to every early adolescent girl and boy an equal chance and a square deal irrespective of racial inheritance, social status, economic ability or natural aptitudes.

The Department of Public Instruction will not urge the adoption of the junior high school upon any community of our Commonwealth. Local initiative has and always must be the first step taken toward any plan of educational reconstruction. So long as any doubt of the appropriateness or opportuneness of adopting a 6-6 or 6-3-3 organization persists, no board of school directors should move in this direction. So long as the superintendent, the principal or teaching staff question the adaptability of the junior high school to their present school conditions no adoption of the junior high school should be urged. If conviction of the need, the purpose or the increased educational effectiveness of the junior high school movement is lacking then a premature adoption will defeat it and, as has too frequently happened in other communities, will work irrevocable harm to the junior high school movement itself. The junior high school is in our Conmonwealth and in our country to stay. When you are ready for it, adopt it. Until that time comes preserve an attitude of "watchful waiting."


[An Address of Welcome delivered by Ellen Bradley, a Junior in the Bellevue, Pennsylvania, High School, to the members of the G. A. R. and American Legion during the annual memorial services at the assembly period on May 28, 1924.]

I am here to say "welcome" to you. That word has a great, unbounded and glorious meaning when we speak it to you this morning. It isn't hard to bridge the gulf that separates your generation from ours, for what is age or difference of years against Spirit? And we do have the same spirit, haven't we? You

had it when you were our age and you have carried it as an inspiration and a light all through your lives. We have it and we pray that it may be a guide to us in our lives as it has been in yours.

Our generation is one apparently of the greatest concern to our elders. They predict all sorts of terrible things for us, even to fire and brimstone, because, they say, we don't do the things they used to do, or rather they never did the things that we do. Almost every current issue of every magazine runs an article by some person of note and prominence on that worn out subject "What I think of the present generation." Unfortunately, a great many of these people seem to find only condemnation for us. However, there are some broadminded people who have visions and understandings great enough to embrace the real situation, and they defend us. It is true that things are not quite the same as when you were young. Think of the difference between our modern trolleys and automobiles and airplanes and the old time horse cars. They are run quite differently. But their object is just the same, isn't it? The horse car was for the purpose of getting to a certain destination, and our faster modes of travel are for the same purpose-to get us where we want to go in the shortest possible time. So it is with the young people of today; our ways are different, but our purpose and ideals are just the same; they are just as high and good. We haven't deteriorated. aren't all harum scarum and irresponsible.


We want you to think of us, not as so many of the older folks do, but with sympathy and understanding and comradeship. We don't forget what you have done, the glorious service you have rendered your country, and the supreme sacrifice made by many of your comrades on those fields of battle. We are Young America and our heads bow reverently to you and to those who are gone. Our hearts quicken a beat and thrill as we see Old Glory waving on high. We, too, stand ready to serve if the call should come, although we hope that a call to arms will never again be heard. But we are ready to give our best service as citizens of the United States, carrying on the banner of its ideals and preserving its glorious integrity forever.

So, veterans, we welcome you, not as a heedless, thoughtless throng, but as young people who are ready to take up the burden where you lay it down.

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]



ED LION High School classes in recent years have eagerly watched two conspicuous landmarks loom up at the end of senior year. One, even more enticing perhaps than commencement, they call Class Trip. Preparations for this trip began back in the sophomore year. Travel classics and themes in the English department took on new meaning. More curiosity attached itself to historic settings. Pictures of transportation brought to class by teachers, aroused anticipation in the students. School socials developed into bazaars, festivals, bakesales largely managed by student enterprise. Magazine salesmanship


brought in commissions, and class plays were repeated as often as business foresight would judiciously warrant.

Class of 1924 at Montreal's Leading Park

Commencement week-and then came the personal introduction to historic, classic, scenic and geographic subjects which had existed for these students only on paper and not on real land and water.

Selection of itinerary was governed by the amount of money in the class treasury. Twentysix students boarded a Pullman sleeper. The next day was spent hiking about Niagara Falls, photographing and enjoying and trying to comprehend it all. The next day they crossed Lake Ontario twice, stopping at Toronto long enough to see the inside of it, then boarding another boat for a 27-hour cruise. A night in staterooms and then the 1,692 scenic "Thousand Islands," punctuating fifty miles


of the upper course of the historic St. Lawrence. Next, the "Rapids Prince" swaying with the current brought them within another hour to a new experience, luxurious hotel life at the Mount Royal Hotel, Montreal.

The next night the travelers rested in their staterooms on the boat anchored on Lake Champlain. Forts Ticonderoga and Crown Point, Arnold, Ethan Allen, Mad Anthony Wayne, Silver Bay all loomed up in memory during the next day's gliding over the beautiful, mountain-bordered waters of Lake George and Lake Champlain. A night on the Hudson River; two and one-half days in New York city-Home.

And what were the benefits? Abstract book knowledge was translated into concrete relationships with the outside world. No, the remainder of the world is not like home. The


memory of the interior of the magnificent cathedral Notre Dame will abide. Thoughts of the cheerful Canadian-French children rekindle a spirit of international altruism. Students discovered that no two saw things just alike. They learned to adapt themselves to their environment. Their appreciation of mother's cooking ripened enroute. The utterly unbelievable in youthful minds became quite possible.

Benefits can not easily be totaled. Assimilation of varied denominational Protestant churches, Jewish synagogues and Bon Se Couer toned down erratic criticism of religious sects. New vocations were observed. Eight days of enlightening experience to embellish commencement; new goals marked on a new horizon in the lives of those graduates who propose, not to lie still and useless, but to "carry on."

Picture Collections in Schools


Librarian, Millersville State Normal School, Millersville, Pa.

EACHERS in elementary and high schools need no arguments to realize the usefulness of visual instruction material in the classroom. Professional publications of the past few years have dealt abundantly with the value of the picture in teaching geography, history, literature, language and other subjects, but a problem is frequently found in the matter of the organization and care of the collection.

In the high school the place for the picture collection is without doubt the school library. The librarian is usually by her training the member of the faculty best prepared to care for such material. Moreover, the library being the department in closest relation with all other departments is the agency best able to promote and continue the usefulness of the collection. Material of this kind when housed in several departments frequently lies idle because of the arrival of new teachers unfamiliar with its resources and value, or under better circumstances is limited in its service because items that would be of help in more than one subject are known only to the department owning them.

The use of pictures in the elementary school may be made a very helpful adjunct in practically every subject of the curriculum. To function properly it is necessary that a work

able plan be devised that will provide satisfactory service to all grades in an elementary school not fortunate enough to have a library room. For such schools, the best plan is to have all pictures used in the various grades filed in one central place, e. g., the principal's office. In this way each teacher may have ready access to all the pictures in the school collection. In order to obtain the best results the care of the collection should be assigned to one person only. Pupil assistance can be used for trimming, mounting and filing. In collecting pictures, too, the interest of pupils should be enlisted. Pictorial supplements of newspapers, magazines, calendars, postcards and railway folders are all sources for much free material which may be put to great use. At small cost it is also possible to obtain excellent prints from a number of picture deal


Not all pictures need to be mounted; in fact, no picture should be so treated that will not certainly be of continual use. For the protection of unmounted pictures to be handled by pupils, the school should own a few celluloid picture holders. These may be procured from library supply houses. They are made of thin celluloid, very transparent, fastened on three sides with eyelets to a pasteboard back. The fourth side is left open to permit the insertion of the picture.

[ocr errors]

When an unmounted picture proves its value, it should be mounted to guarantee its preservation. A satisfactory mounting material is cover paper, the kind used for pamphlets and catalogs. Gray and brown are the two desirable colors, gray for the pictures in black and white, brown for those in sepia. Either mount may be used for colored pictures but the brown usually looks better. As it comes in large sheets, dimensions must be provided for cutting the mounts.

In the Millersville Library, a correspondence file is used and the mounts are 91⁄2 by 111⁄2 inches in size. Many librarians recommend the legal cap file because it is possible to keep larger pictures in that size as the drawers are built to hold material 91⁄2 by 15% inches. This advantage, however, is offset by certain disadvantages. It is not practical to use a uniform size mount in the legal file as the mount that would accommodate the largest pictures would be unsuitable for many smaller ones both on account of the appearance and because of the greater amount of space required for bulletin board and other display uses; moreover, the standard size for sheets of cover paper is such that there would be considerable waste in cutting the large mount. And a file in which the mounts are of various sizes is not used with nearly the same ease as is one in which the mounts are of uniform dimensions. Moreover, there will be pictures in every collection too large for even the legal file. Therefore, as the oversize file becomes necessary whether using the correspondence or legal unit, it is evident that the former is to be preferred.

For the pictures that are too large for this file, pulp-board is better than the cover paper, because though light in weight it has more firmness. These may be kept in a box built to hold mounts cut 13 inches wide and 19 inches long. In fact for the smaller pictures too, it is possible to use boxes until the value of the picture collection has been demonstrated, when a regular filing cabinet should be provided. Orange boxes may be used satisfactorily as a make-shift arrangement.

Millersville uses pictures for regular weekly exhibits in both the Normal School and Training School libraries and the last annual report showed a circulation of 2,718 for classroom use. The time and effort required to organize and care for a good working collection is justified by the statement of Ernest

L. Crandall in School and Society for Oct. 27, 1923 that "it should be conceded that visual instruction is well to the fore as a national movement in education and the amount of interest thus evinced and now bound to be continuously aroused bids fair to bring to bear upon its problems the individual and concerted application of a high degree of trained pedagogical intelligence."


The helpful secretary to the superintendent of the small school system should be able to do nearly everything that the superintendent himself has to do and a little more. It is not necessary that she should have his ability to teach and to criticize teachers, but, on the other hand, she must be expert at typewriting, stenography and all sorts of mimeograph work, about which the superintendent, as a rule, knows little.

Aside from these mechanical arts, the secretary must have a good command of English, as she is often called upon to compose letters for her employer and others. She must also keep account of considerable sums of money, take charge of thousands of text books constantly circulating among the various grade rooms and always be able to tell in what school building each set of books is being used. She should know just what materials are needed and tell the superintendent at the proper time what supplies and how many supplies should be ordered. An ideal secretary should be the superintendent's second memory, looking out for the small details that he may have overlooked, thus giving him more time for study and supervision.

In order to answer the innumerable questions that are asked of the secretary, she must be familiar with the school law of the State and with all the policies of the local board of education.

Not least among the essential qualifications of the secretary is the ability to meet people courteously-even the agents who haunt the office of the superintendent, and to work agreeably with teachers, parents, students and school board members.

The fact that the superintendent is occasionally absent for days, or even weeks at a time renders it necessary that the secretary should be able to do the greater part of his work and be familiar with his policy of administration.

Last, but not least, is the necessity for discretion. The average superintendent would prefer a less skillful stenographer whom he could trust never to repeat conversations heard in the office, than the most rapid typist -with a taste for gossip.-Contributed by Dorothy Kline, Secretary to Supt. H. A. Oday, Mahanoy City.

One way to keep friends is not to give them


« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »