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4, healthy root; b, root on which the lice are at work; c, deserted root where decay has commenced; d. lice on large roots; e and f, pupa; g and h, imagos with wings; i, antennæ of same; j, wingless female on roots depositing; k, section of root.
Clinton. The Delaware, Crevelling, Rebecca, Diana, Eumelan, and Allen's Hybrid are more susceptible, but comparatively undisturbed; while the Iona and Catawba are very liable to attack and injury. Who knows how much the want of success with the Catawba and Iona is consequent upon the ravages of the Phylloxera. I have seen the injurious effects of this pest at Pointe aux Peaux, Monroe county, and more marked still in the famous vineyards of Kelley's Island, Ohio.
Fortunately there are a host of natural enemies which, especially in this country, will go very far towards holding the pest in abeyance.
Grafting the susceptible varieties on such stocks as the Clinton, Concord, or Israella has been recommended, and is being extensively tried, especially in Europe. Mr. Kelley of Kelley's Island, who has experimented some, has little
faith in grafting; yet my observations at his place were encouraging.* In procuring vines, it would be a safe precaution to dip the roots in some insecticide, as a strong solution of whale-oil soap, before setting them. It would be well, too, to mix soot in the soil, as that is found obnoxious to the lice.
The leaves affected with galls should be collected and destroyed early in the season. Submersion for twenty or thirty days has been found effectual in France in killing the root forms. Wherever this can be done it should be brought into requisition in autumn, immediately after the season's growth is complete. It is said that at this season the vines will not suffer, even if submerged for a time sufficient to destroy the lice.
Carbolic acid powder and soot are highly recommended. By mixing these with the soil the lice are said to be destroyed.
Bisulphide of carbon, which we use so successfully in destroying museum pests, which recently gave so much hope in France, is now given up as too expensive, too laborious of application, and not thorough enough in its effects, owing, doubtless, to inability to reach the lice in making the application.
According to late advices Prof. Dumas, of the French academy, has discovered a perfect remedy, and one easily applied. It is the salt: potassic sulphocarbonate (K S C S), which is applied in a dry form. It is placed on the earth beneath the vines and carried to the roots by the rain. The efficacy of this salt is vouched for by such well known scientists as Messrs. Milne Edwards, Posteur, Duchartre, Blanchard, etc. As I have before suggested, our ability is ever commensurate with our needs.
Tinea flavi-frontella, Linn. Family, Tineidœ.
Hon. W. L. Webber of East Saginaw writes: "We of this place (East Saginaw) are very much troubled with carpet and furniture moths. If your time would permit, I think a paper prepared by you, giving the details of the natural history, habits, and transformations of this pest, and the best method to prevent its work or to get rid of it after work has commenced, will be of great interest to us here, and I believe of general interest."
I take pleasure in complying with the above request, not simply because of the importance of the subject, but also because of the general ignorance in regard to it, even among those most cultured and most interested. Only a few evenings since, when I was taking tea with one of the best informed ladies of my acquaintance, I called her attention to some of the pretty little yellow moths just coming from her elegant furniture. "What!" she remarked, "those the moths! I supposed the large ones [cut-worm moths, Agrotians] we see behind the blinds in summer and autumn were the mischief-makers." would be no greater mistake to call an elephant a horse.
These little moths expand about a half inch, and are less than one-fourth of an inch long. They are of a light buff color, and shine like satin. The wings,
*Prof. Riley, who has just returned from Europe, tells me that the grafting experiments tried there grafting their varieties on our stocks is giving great hope as an effectual cure for this terrible plague.
are long, narrow, pointed, and beautifully fringed. The larva ("worm") is white, with a yellow head, has, like nearly all caterpillars, sixteen legs, and is always surrounded by a flattened, cylindrical case, usually gray or whitish in color, though this depends on their food. The ends are open, that the larvæ may reach forth to feed, or peer forth, which they are free to do when disturbed.
The pupa or chrysalis is somewhat curved, and has a rounded head. The antennæ, wings, and legs are folded beneath the body, and reach nearly to the end of the body. The pupa case or cocoon is similar to the larva case.
The moth comes forth as early as the last of May, and may be seen from that time till the close of summer. Their tiny, lustrous, buff-colored bodies are easily detected, as they rest with wings folded close about their bodies in the deep crevices of our parlor furniture, or among the folds of our garments, or even more plainly as they flit across our rooms.
These moths pair, after which the female seeks out our furs and woolen or silk apparel, her minute size enabling her to enter drawers, closets, and trunks; when she distributes her eggs with an eye to the good of her prospective young, if not to our good. The larvæ soon appear, and may be found at home the summer through, comfortably fixed up in their little tents and working their miserable mischief, all unsuspected by the unwary housewife, who learns too late of their previous presence, by discovering that her most choice possessions are totally ruined. In spring and summer the chrysalids will appear, soon to followed by a new return of the pretty moths.
Woolen garments and furs should be put away in trunks, with several pieces of camphor gum as large as hickory-nuts packed in with them, or they may be put in close paper bags and pasted up so that no holes, ever so small, will remain open. Even in this case a little camphor gum will render assurance doubly sure. Infested garments or furs should be put in a tight sack or trunk, and after adding a half ounce of chloroform the sack or trunk should be closed as nearly air tight as possible. The vapor will kill the insects. Then prepare as given above.
For furniture and carpets heavy paper, wet with carbolic acid or spirits of turpentine, will kill larvæ already at work. This should be placed under the edge of the carpet, where the mischief is generally done, and in furniture, crowded back in the deep folds. It would be well to saturate the interior of the furniture with a strong solution of carbolic acid. Our best furniture and furs have a goodly quantity of this substance in the undissolved state fastened inside them when made. Russian leather, cedar bark or boughs, tobacco leaves, and even red pepper, are said to prevent the moths from laying eggs. It will be well, then, to place these in exposed situations. Manufacturers of carriages wash the woolen linings of their carriages with a weak solution of corrosive sublimate, which is very sure destruction to all insects. Yet Dr. Kedzie tells me it is unsafe to use it.
Hon. W. L. Webber writes me as follows in reference to a method practiced by his people in destroying the larvæ in carpets:
"There is one means which they have practiced of killing the worm while in the carpet which is not suggested by your article. Take a wet sheet or other cloth, lay it upon the carpet, and then run a hot flat-iron over it, so as to convert the water into steam, which
permeates the carpet beneath and destroys the life of the inchoate moth. They have found this very successful, and as it can be done without taking up the carpet, and the whole surface gone over in a comparatively short time, it is regarded as one of the most efficient means of protection they have."
Every careful housekeeper will carefully examine her carpets and furniture each fall and spring, brush out all the creases, give all a good airing, and if there is any trace of these evil-doers, will practice the above remedies.
LANSING, June 10, 1875.
A. J. COOK, Professor in Agricultural College.
STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.
PROCEEDINGS AND REPORTS FOR THE YEAR 1874.
To the President and Executive Committee:
I beg herewith to submit my Report of the Proceedings of the Michigan State Agricultural Society for the current year, 1874.
C. F. KIMBALL, Secretary.
PONTIAC, Mich., Dec. 31, 1874.
MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AT EATON RAPIDS, DEC. 15, 1873.
Meeting was called to order by President Griggs at 7 P. M. The roll was called, when committee men Messrs. Sterling, Green, Hyde, Manning, Allison, Humphrey, Wolverton, Avery, Angel, Van Valkenburg, and committee men elect Messrs. Childs and Howard, and ex-Presidents Wells, Beckwith, Baxter, and Shoemaker, answered to their names. A quorum being present, President Griggs addressed the committee upon the late fair and the condition of the Society, embodying in his remarks many valuable suggestions.
Moved by Mr. Beckwith that a committee be appointed upon address of President. Messrs. Beckwith, Baxter, and Avery were appointed such committee.
On motion, the Secretary read the constitution of the society as published in the "Transactions of the Michigan State Agricultural Society for 1859," as amended October 1, 1858, with subsequent amendments. Remarks were made by Messrs. Wells and Baxter in regard to the changes in the constitution since 1859, and on motion of Secretary Kimball Messrs. Baxter, Wells, and Sterling were appointed a committee to compile the Constitution and By-laws of the Michigan State Agricultural Society.
Messrs. Wells, Baxter, Col. Shoemaker, Sterling, Childs, and others made. remarks upon the duties of the committee, and the difficulties in the way of a successful carrying out of the resolution, the records of the society having been destroyed.
The protest of E. A. Newhall, owner of Magna Charta, and Jerry Ripple, owner of Landseer, against J. C. Deyo's horse Membrino, claiming that said horse, being under an assumed name, and not having made the season in the State, was ineligible to trot in Class 8 at the late fair, was presented as follows: