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seminaries for teachers may be established, and all our schools , tion. To adapt the requisitions of school laws to the convenfurnished by them, we may partly console ourselves with the ience of those who are affected by them, is generally doing an reflection, that a system has been in operation for some years, inportant service to education. Another great benefit may in which some of the most important ends of such seminaries also be secured by taking advantage of the peculiar facilities have been in some degree obtained; and, that, we may hope for the improvement of schools by a large and compact poputo select out of the thousands of Sabbath school teachers, some lation, hundreds at least, of male and female instructors for our com Some of the evils which commonly belong to the district mon schools, who are prepared to favor improvements in edu- system in this state, do not necessarily spring from the provication.

sions of the laws, and yet are generally found to exist. Such features may be traced to long practised habits, or to opinions

Other evils, which HOW TEACHERS MAY BE INSTRUCTED BY FRIENDS OF which prevail in the minds of the public. EDUCATION.

we need not distinguish from the rest, seem to be the natural

product of the system itself. We may here notice a few of Two or three years ago it was mentioned in an European both kinds indiscriminately. journal, that a Swiss clergyman living in a small town in one One of the evils commonly is, that there is litile or no conof the cantons, had offered to give gratuitous instruction to as cert of action beyond the limits of the districts. Those who many teachers as might choose to attend, during the month in have the appointment and supervision of teachers, should be in which there was a vacation in the schools; and that many the way of extending their knowledge, and improving their availed themselves of his offer, with evident advantage. views of instruction, as well as the teachers themselves. This

This gentleman, having the good of the public at heart, cannot be done fast enongh, unless they occasionally associate and through an acquaintance with the condition of the schools, in considerable numbers, and have opportunities to learn the their teachers, and the state of society, had useful suggestions opinions and practices of each other. It is highly useful, also, to make, not merely of a general and theoretical character, to have the schools which we superintend, inspected by friends but also such as were particularly applicable to existing circum- who have other schools under their direction. 'They will comstances. He made po pretensions to any great or extraordina- mend what they approve, and suggest what we perhaps might ry science; and probably had not time to prepare even a sin- not have thought of in years. gle written lecture ; but he knew how the people might man If we compare a school house which is liable to frequent inage to instruct and govern their pupils better than they did, spection, with one which is known to be never visited, in what and he simply told them the way. He knew that the arrange a different state do we commonly find the desks and benches, ments of the seats and desks in their schools might be impro- the floors and walls, the yard and the children! The teacher ved; and, to make them understand his reasons, he could take is incited to greater exertion. So is the Committee which the opportunity to give them a few important facts concerning superintends a district. If the members feel that they have no the human frame and constitution.

overseer to approve of their faithfulness, or to discover their A little reflection will convince the reader, that in the course negligence, they too often seem to strive to do as little as the of a month, the philanthropic man spoken of, might have com- laws require, and sometimes fall below its standard. But in municated a large amount of useful instruction, and at its close places where they are associated with many more, and where must have had the minds of the teachers in an improved state, an active system is in existence, they strive to do the most they and prepared for future improvements. He might also have can, and learn how to lo many things which they would never arranged for regular meetings of teachers, founded libraries, have attempted alone. and sat on foot many useful plans.

By a close adherence to the district system in large towns, And how simple, cheap and efficient is such a plan! It is we fail to secure the advantages of well classified schools. natural to enquire, after hearing of it: Had he not many imi- Common education should not only be made universal: it tators ?. Are not all the teachers in Switzerland favored with should be elevated as high as possible. But it is the nature of similar instruction? The next question natural to us, is : Why the district system, when rigidly adhered to, to keep it limited. may we not have many imitators in our own country-es- No single district perhaps, has the authority and the means pecially in Connecticut? Between the time of engaging necessary for the establishment and support of a high school ; teachers for the schools in a given town or neighborhood, and and the limited concert of action before spoken of, prevents an the period when they are to commence their labors, how favor- union of strength and resources. The low views of the grade able an opportunity is sometimes offered, for any clergyman, of education desirable, at the same time, probably prevents the or other friend of education, to invite them to assemble when idea of a higher school from entering the minds of the officers aud where their mutual convenience will permit, to hear a few and the public. familiar remarks on the importance of the station they are to Now there are strong reasons to be urged, in favor of reduoccupy, and the means by which its duties may best be per- cing the number of schools for children of ihe middle age, in formed !

some places, and establishing new ones for those below and One may be inclined to say, I am not adequately prepared above it. Many of those reasons apply more strongly to large for the instruction of teachers; I have indeed been engaged towns than 10 any other parts of the state. The need is greatin the instruction of men in law, in religion, or, as an editor, er, and the facilities are superior. The influence of such imin the various branches touched by the press ; but I have not provements would also be more active and powersul elsewhere, so much as seen a teachers' seminary, and know not how such ifcommenced in the large towns. institutions are conducted. This objection is not to be regard The deviations from the district system which we would jed. . Many a man in our country, many a man in every county first recommend, would therefore be ihe following: 1st. The n this state, is sufficiently well informed about school kceping, combination of all the school officers of every large town, unto talk a few hours, and even many, to the teachers of com- der one systematic and active plan of operations. mon schools, for their benefit, and the good of their pupils. 2d. The classification of schools under their direction, on

Let one man in each county or township propose one meet- broad principles, adapted to the general convenience and bene. ing, and if he please, engage some friend to assist him, and in fit of the inhabiiants. many instances, we will almost promise, all present will urge In organizing the system of supervision, the principal feaanother and another meeting. The perusal of any of the tures of the public school society of the city of New York books from which our extracts are given in this paper, will would probably be found best adapted to the objects in view. suggest abundance of topics for lectures.

How changed for the beiler would the schools of Hartford or SOME MODIFICATIONS OF OUR DISTRICT SYSTEM

New Haven appear, or those of Middletown, New London,

Norwich, Litchfield, or any other of the principal towns, NEEDED.

if they were under the charge of an active and united society, The district system, as many of our readers probably well consisting of the leading friends of common

education around know, is liable to some great objections in certain cases, par- them; and if they were distributed, remcdelled, and put on a ticularly when stricily adhered to in large towns. It is not footing corresponding with the wants of the people and the in improbable that many persons best acquainted with its opera- terests of the public ! Primary schools on excellent plans ye tion under such circumstances, may, before this, have looked unknown in Connecticut, would be multiplied ;=secondary upon it as requiring modifications, or even a thorough altera- schools, less numerous than the present district schools, wouli

* * * * *

be opened for children of the middle age ;-and one higher "1. Educate teachers, and the compensation will be increaschool would finish the education of the most promising youth sed. If you furnish betier teachers for the public schools, priof both sexes, and prepare and improve the teachers for all. vate schools will be discontinued, and leave at liberty a fund

How soon would a more extensive correspondence and co- for public teachers. ***** operation then be established among the friends of education in “2. If female teachers can be educated in the most perfect the state! To confer with others, to visit each others' schools, manner, they would be employed with great advantage in to seek farther improvements, would soon become the pleasing many of the schools now kept by men. and honorable occupation of many hours, with many of our “3. The calculation does not stop here. It is true economy nost intelligent and virtuous citizens.

to buy an article that is worth your money, and many have been ruined by buying cheap pennyworths in education, no less than

in trade. A good master will teach and benefit a school more EDUCATION OF TEACHERS,

in two months, than a master poorly qualified, in a year. li The leading article of the last number of the North Ameri- will be found much cheaper to employ the best teachers. A can Review, is devoted to common school education. Its au- boy kept till he is eighteen in an ordinary district school, and Thorship we have seen attributed to R. Rantoul, Esq., member then sent for three years to a common country academy, is not of the Massachusetts Board of Education. It closes with some so well fitted for active life at twenty-one, as every boy might considerations on the necessity of providing Normal schools, be at sixteen, in such a school as ought to be kept in every disor Teachers' seminaries, for the betier education of teachers, trict in the Commonwealth, and well might be, if we had our male and female, for our common schools, and quotes essential Normal schools in full operation. Whoever, therewith cordial approbation, the following remarks of Dr. Chan- fore, will be still content to give his son 'no better education ning:

than we have mentioned, may have it at less than the present “We need an institution for the formation of beiter teachers; cost, by employing the best teachers, and his son produce an and, until this step is taken, we can make no important pro- of minority. But he who gives his children a comparatively

income, instead of requiring an expense, for the last five years gress. The most crying want in this Commonwealth is the want of accomplished teachers. We boast of our schools, but superior education in the present state of things, would not our schools do comparatively little, for want of educated in- rest satisfied till he had educated them in the same degree structers. Without good teaching, a school is but a name.

above the improved standard. And, in so doing, he would not An institution for training men to train the young would be a depart from the strictest economy; for an enlightened commufountain of living waters, sending forth strearos to refresh nily produces and accumulates wealth faster, in a vastly greater present and future ages. As yet, our legislators have denied ratio), than the proportionate additional cost of their education. in the pror and laboring classes this prineipal means of their A million of dollars a year, judiciously applied to the improveelevation. We trust they will not always prove blind 10 the ment of young heads and hearts, for the next thirty years, highest interest of the State.

would not merely be refunded, but the state would be much "We want better teachers, and more teachers, for all classes more than thirty millions richer in visible property, at the end of society, for rich and poor, for children and adults. We of the period." want that the resources of the community should be directed “The Normal school must begin with females, hecause there to the procuring of better instructers, as its highest concern. I is more unappropriated female talent than can brought into acOne of the surest signs of the regeneration of society will be, tion ; because females can be educated cheaper, and, in the the elevation of the art of teaching to the highest rank in the first instance, quicker, and better, and will teach cheaper after community. When a people shall learn that its greatest they are qualified; because the primary schools, which properbenefactors, and most important members, are men devoted 10 ly belong to females, are in the worst condition, and need most the liberal instruction of all its classes, to the work of raising to !o be reformed, and because, by reforming these, we therehy life its buried intellect, it will have opened to itself the path of improve all the higher schools. By raising up the foundation true glory. This truth is making iis way. Socrates is now we necessarily elevate the superstructure. An improvement regarded as the greatest man in the age of great men. The in the rudiments of education, among children of from four to name of king has grown dim before that of apostle. To teach, ten years of age, would be felt through all the schools, as these whether by word or action, is the highest function on earth.” young scholars passed into higher classes. The public would

There is also an extract from a Report of the Commiitee on perceive the benefit, and enter with alacrity into the measures Education to the Legislature of Massachusetts, in 1837, recom

necessary to carry out a thorough reformation." mending an appropriation of ten thousand dollars for the es We should hail the establishment of such a seminary in tablishment of a Teachers' seminary. The language of this the state of Connecticut as the dawning of a new era in comextract would become our own State.

mon school education. “ That the highest interest in Massachusetts is, and will always continue to be, the just and equal instruction of all her

EARLY ASSOCIATIONS. citizens, so far as the circumstances of each individual will permit it to be imparted; that her chief glory for two hundred The pleasing recollections connected with the homes of our years, has been the extent in which this instruction was dif-childhond, often influence our conduct as well as our feelings, fused, the result of provident legislation, to promote the com- in after lise. Men who travel or reside abroad for many years, mon cause, and secure the perpetuity of ihe common interest; often, perhaps always, feel strong inclinations to return to their that, for many years, a well grounded apprehension has been birth-places. Many such return; while multitudes never entertained, of the neglect of our common schools by large change their homes, because they are bound there by such inportions of our community, and of the comparative degradation | teresting connections. io which these institutions might fall from such neglect; that How strange it seems, at first thought, that so sew ever should the friends of universal education have long looked to the admit that ihey have any pleasing associations with their legislature for the establishment of one or more seminaries de school-houses! Yellow frue it is; and plainly it is proved by voted to the purpose of supplying qualified teachers for the the reluctance shown by parents to visit the schools! If we town and district schools, by whose action alone other judi- had associations of decided pleasure connected with the schoolcious provisions of law could be carried into full effect; * * * house, should we not regard it with lively interest, while the thal, although much has been done within two or three years, resort of our children? for encouragement of our town schools by positive enactmeni, A lady of this State not long since remarked in conrersaand more by the liberal spirit newly awakened in our severai tion, that she could not pretend to have a single agreeable recolcommunities, yel the number of competent teachers is found, lection connected with her school-house; and a gentleman, by universal experience, so far inadequate to supply the de-while urgently arguing in favor of an immediate and general mand for them, as to be ihe pripciple obstacle to improvement, improveinent in seats and desks of the Connecticut common and the greatest deficiency of our republic."

schools, declared that he never thought of that which he alIn reply to the objection, that it would be useless to educale lended in his boy hood, without a lively remembrance of the teachers, because the compensation is too small to insure young prolonged weariness and pains he suffered, during his confinemen of talent to enter into the profession, the Review says:-- 1 ment there, on high benches without backs.

seminaries for teachers may be established, and all our schools , tion. To adapt the requisitions of school laws to the convenfurnished by them, we may partly console ourselves with the ience of those who are affected by them, is generally doing an reflection, that a system has been in operation for some years, inportant service to education. Another great benefit may in which some of the most important ends of such seminaries also be secured by taking advantage of the peculiar facilities have been in some degree obtained ; and, that, we may hope for the improvement of schools by a large and compact poputo select out of the thousands of Sabbath school teachers, some lation, hundreds at least, of male and female instructors for our com Some of the evils which comm

monly belong to the district mon schools, who are prepared to favor improvements in edu- system in this state, do not necessarily spring fron the provication.

sions of the laws, and yet are generally found to exist. Such

features may be traced to long practised habits, or to opinions HOW TEACHERS MAY BE INSTRUCTED BY FRIENDS OF we need not distinguish from the rest, seem to be the natural

which prevail in the minds of the public. Other evils, which EDUCATION.

product of the system itself. We may here notice a few of Two or three years ago it was mentioned in an European both kinds indiscriminately. journal, that a Swiss clergyman living in a small town in one One of the evils commonly is, that there is litile or no conof the cantons, had offered to give gratuitous instruction to as cert of action beyond the limits of the districts. Those who many teachers as might choose to attend, during the month in have the appointment and supervision of teachers, should be in which there was a vacation in the schools; and that many the way of extending their knowledge, and improving their availed themselves of his offer, with evident advantage. views of instruction, as well as the teachers tbemiselves. This

This gentleman, having the good of the public at heart, cannot be done fast enongh, unless they occasionally associate and through an acquaintance with the condition of the schools, in considerable numbers, and have opportunities to learn the their teachers, and the state of society, had useful suggestions opinions and practices of each other. It is highly useful, also, to make, not merely of a general and theoretical character, to have the schools which we superintend, inspected by friends but also such as were particularly applicable to existing circum- who have other schools under their direction. They will comstances. He made no pretensions to any great or extraordina- mend what they approve, and suggest what we perhaps might ry science; and probably had not time to prepare even a sin- not have thought of in years. gle written lecture ; but he knew how the people might man If we compare a school house which is liable to frequent inage to instruct and govern their pupils better than they did, spection, with one which is known to be never visited, in wbat and he simply told them the way. He knew that the arrange- a different state do we commonly find the desks and benches, ments of the seats and desks in their schools might be impro- the floors and walls, the yard and the children! The teacher ved; and, to make them understand his reasons, he could take is incited to greater exertion. So is the Committee which the opportunity to give them a few important facts concerning superintends a district. If the members feel that they have no the human frame and constitution.

overseer to approve of their faithfulness, or to discover their • A little reflection will convince the reader, that in the course negligence, they too often seem to strive to do as little as the of a month, the philanthropic man spoken of, might have com- laws require, and sometimes fall below its standard. But in municated a large amount of useful instruction, and at its close places where they are associated with many more, and where must have had the minds of the teachers in an improved state, an active system is in existence, they strive to do the most they and prepared for future improvements. He mighi also have can, and learn how to lo many things which they would never arranged for regular meetings of teachers, founded libraries, have attempted alone. and sat on foot many useful plans.

By a close adherence to the district system in large towns, And how simple, cheap and efficient is such a plan! It is we fail to secure the advantages of well classified schools. natural to enquire, after hearing of it: Had he not many imi- Common education should not only be made universal: it tators ? Are not all the teachers in Switzerland favored with should be elevated as high as possible. But it is the nature of similar instruction ? The next question natural to us, is : Why the district system, when rigidly adhered to, to keep it limited. may we not have many imitators in our own country-es- No single district perbaps, has the authority and the means pecially in Connecticut ? Between the time of engaging necessary for the establishment and support of a high school ; teachers for the schools in a given town or neighborhood, and and the limited concert of action before spoken of, prevents an the period when they are to commence their labors, how favor- union of strength and resources. The low views of the grade able an opportunity is sometimes offered, for any clergyman, of education desirable, at the same time, probably prevents the or other friend of education, to invite them to assemble when idea of a higher school from entering the minds of the officers avd where their mutual convenience will permit, to hear a few and the public. familiar remarks on the importance of the station they are to Now there are strong reasons to be urged, in favor of reduoccupy, and the means by which its duties may best be per- cing the number of schools for children of the middle age, in formed!

some places, and establishing new ones for those below and One may be inclined to say, I am not adequately prepared above it. Many of those reasons apply more strongly to large for the instruction of teachers; I have indeed been engaged towns than to any other parts of the state. The need is greatin the instruction of men in law, in religion, or, as an editor, er, and the facilities are superior. The influence of such imin the various branches touched by the press ; but I have noi provements would also be more active and powerful elsewhere, so much as seen a teachers' seminary, and know not how such if commenced in the large towns. institutions are conducted. This objection is not to be regard The deviations from the district system which we would jed. Many a man in our country, many a man in every county first recommend, would therefore be the following: 1st. The n this state, is sufficiently well informed about school keeping, combination of all the school vslicers of every large town, unto talk a few hours, and even many, to the teachers of com- der one systematic and active plan of operations. mon schools, for their benefit, and the good of their pupils. 2d. The classification of schools under their direction, on

Let one man in each county or township propose one meet- broad principles, adapted to the general convenience and bene. ing, and if he please, engage some friend to assist him, and in fit of the inhabitants. many instances, we will almost promise, all present will urge In organizing the system of supervision, the principal feaanother and another meeting. The pérusal of any of the tures of the public school society of the city of New York books from which our extracts are given in this paper, will would probably be found best adapted to the objects in view. suggest abundance of topics for lectures.

How changed for the better would the schools of Hartford on

New Haven appear, or those of Middletown, New London, SOME MODIFICATIONS OF OUR DISTRICT SYSTEM

Norwich, Litchfield, or any other of the principal towns, NEEDED,

if they were under the charge of an active and united society, The district system, as many of our readers probably well consisting of the leading friends of conimon education around know, is liable to some great objections in certain cases, par- them; and if they were distributed, remcdelled, and put on a ticularly when strictly adhered to in large towns. It is not footing corresponding with the wants of the people and the in improbable that many persons best acquainted with its opera- terests of the public Primary schools on excellent plans ye tion under such circumstances, may, before this, have looked unknown in Connecticul, would be multiplied ;-secondary upon it as requiring modifications, or even a thorough altera-schools, less numerous than the present district schools, wouli

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be opened for children of the middle age ;-and one higher "1. Educate teachers, and the compensation will be increaschool would finish the education of the most promising youth sed. If you furnish better teachers for the public schools, priof both sexes, and prepare and improve the teachers for all. vate schools will be discontinued, and leave at liberty a fund

How soon would a more extensive correspondence and co- for public teachers. ***** operation then be established among the friends of education in “2. If female teachers can be educated in the most perfect the state! To confer with others, 10 visit each others' schools, manner, they would be employed with great advantage in to seek farther improvements, would soon become the pleasing many of the schools now kept by men. ***** and honorable occupation of many hours, with many of our "3. The calculation does not stop here. It is true economy most intelligent and virtuous citizens.

to buy an article that is worth your money, and many have been ruined by buying cheap pennyworths in education, no less than

in trade. A good master will teach and benefit a school more EDUCATION OF TEACHERS,

in two months, than a master poorly qualified, in a year. Ii The leading article of the last number of the North Ameri- will be found much cheaper to employ the best teachers. A can Review, is devoted to common school education. Its au- boy kept till he is eighteen in an ordinary district school, and thorship we have seen attributed to R. Rantoul, Esq., member then sent for three years to a common country academy, is not of the Massachusetts Board of Education. It closes with some so well fitted for active life at twenty-one, as every boy might considerations on the necessity of providing Normal schools, be at sisteen, in such a school as ought to be kept in every disor Teachers' seminaries, for the better education of teachers, trict in the Commonwealth, and well might be, if we had our male and female, for our common schools, and quotes essential Normal schools in full operation. Whoever, therewith cordial approbation, the following remarks of Dr. Chan- fore, will be still content io give his son po better education ning:

ihan we have mentioned, may have it at less than the present "We need an institution for the formation of better teachers; cost, by employing the best teachers, and his son produce an and, until this step is taken, we can make no important pro- income, instead of requiring an expense, for the last five years gress. The most crying want in this Commonwealth is the of minority. But he who gives his children a comparatively want of accomplished teachers. We boast of our schools, but superior education in the present state of things, would not our schools do comparatively little, for want of educated in- rest satisfied till he had educated them in the same degree structers. Without good teaching, a school is but a name. above the improved standard. And, in so doing, he would not An institution for training men to train the young would be a

depart from the strictest economy; for an enlightened commufountain of living waters, sending forth strearus to refresh nily produces and accumulates wealth faster, in a vastly greater present and future ages. As yet, our legislators have denied ratio, than the proportionate additional cost of their education. to the pror and laboring classes this prineipal means of their A million of dollars a year, judiciously applied to the improveelevation. We trust they will not always prove blind to the ment of young heads and hearts, for the next thirty years, highest interest of the State.

would not merely be refunded, but the state would be much “We want better teachers, and more teachers, for all classes more than thirty millions richer in visible property, at the end of society, for rich and poor, for children and adults. We of the period." want that the resources of the community should be directed “The Normal school must begin with females, because there to the procuring of better instructers, as its highest concern. is more unappropriated female ialent than can brought into acOne of the surest signs of the regeneration of society will be, tion; because females can be educated cheaper, and, in the the elevation of the art of teaching to the highest rank in the first instance, quicker, and better, and will teach cheaper after community. When a people shall learn that its greatest they are qualified; because the primary schools, which properbenefactors, and most important members, are men devoted to ly belong to females, are in the worst condition, and need most the liberal instruction of all its classes, to the work of raising to to be reformed, and because, by reforming these, we thereby life its buried intellect, it will have opened to itself the path of improve all the higher schools. ' By raising up the foundation true glory. This truth is making iis way. Socrates is now we necessarily elevate the superstructure. An improvement regarded as the greatest man in the age of great men. The in the rudiments of education, among children of from four to name of king has grown dim before that of apostle. To teach, ten years of age, would be felt through all the schools, as these whether by word or action, is the highest function on earth." young scholars passed into higher classes. The public would

There is also an extract from a Report of the Commiitee on perceive the benefit, and enter with alacrity into ihe measures Education to the Legislature of Massachusetts, in 1837, recom- necessary to carry out a thorough reformation.” mending an appropriation of ten thousand dollars for the es We should hail the establishment of such a seminary in tablishment of a Teachers' seminary. The language of this the state of Connecticut as the dawning of a new era in comextract would become our own State.

mon school education. "That the highest interest in Massachusetts is, and will always continue to be, the just and equal instruction of all her

EARLY ASSOCIATIONS. citizens, so far as the circumstances of each individual will permit it to be imparted; that her chief glory for two hundred The pleasing recollections connected with the homes of our years

, has been the extent in which this instruction was dif- childhood, often influence our conduct as well as our feelings, fused, the result of provident legislation, to promote the com- in alter life. Men who travel or reside abroad for many years, mon cause, and secure the perpetuity of ihe common interest; often, perhaps always, feel strong inclinations to return to their that, for many years, a well grounded apprehension has been birth-places. Many such relurn; while multitudes never entertained, of the neglect of our common schools by large change their homes, because they are bound there by such inportions of our community, and of the comparative degradation teresting connections. to which these institutions might fall from such neglect; that How strange it seems, at first thought, that so few ever should the friends of universal education bave long looked to the admit that iney have any pleasing associations with their legislature for the establishment of one or more seminaries de school-houses! Yellow true it is; and plainly it is proved by voted to the purpose of supplying qualified teachers for the the reluctance shown by parents to visit the schools! town and district schools, by whose action alone other judi- had associations of decided pleasure connected with the schoolcious provisions of law could be carried into full effect; *** house, should we not regard it with lively interest, while the that, although much has been done within two or three years, resort of our children? for encouragement of our town schools by positive enacimient, A lady of this State not long since remarked in conrersaand more by the liberal spirit newly awakened in our severai tion, that she could not pretend to have a single agreeable recolcommunities, yet the number of competent teachers is found, lection connected with her school-house; and a gentleman, by universal experience, so far inadequate to supply the de- while urgenily arguing in favor of an immediate and general mand for them, as to be the priociple obstacle to improvement, improvement in seats and desks of the Connecticut common and the greatest deficiency of our republic."

schools, declared that he never thought of that which he atIn reply to the objection, that it would be useless to educale tended in his boyhood, without a lively remembrance of the teachers, because the compensation is too small to insure young prolonged weariness and pains he suffered, during his confinemen of talent to enter into the profession, the Review says :- I ment there, on high benches without backs.

If we

Make the schools comfortable and pleasant, and we shall Several of the distinguished South Americans are friends of soon have a generation grown up, with prejudices not against religious reformation; and, among the Protestant principles them, but in their favor.

which they have in their hearts adopted, is that the Bible

ought to be freely distributed, and familiarly read in school. IMPROVEMENTS IN, EDUCATION IN SOUTH AMERICA. Santander and Mosquera are Vice-Presidents of the American

Bible Society; and Rocafuerte, the President of Equador, was The year 1810 may be regarded as the commencement of imprisoned in Mexico, a few years since, for his bold and pubthe Revolutionary war in most parts of Spanish South Amer- lic expression of Protestant principles. ica; and from that period the history of improvements in edu New Grenada, young as the Republic is, and extensive as is cation may be dated. All the States or nations which about her territory, has been for some years under an uniform and that time began to claim an independent existence, aimed at in- organized system of education. Each department bas an tellectual as well as political improvement; and, indeed, to a university, each province a college, and subordinate to these greater or less degree, there was a tendency showed to religious are high schools in greater numbers, and common schools liberty. However, they all have been content, for the present, which now educate a great part of the children. All these inwith some encroachments on the government of the priest- stitutions have their appropriate officers, who are required 10 hood, though they have established their political independence. make regular reports through designated channels to the GovThey have also made exertions for general and extensive sys- ernors, who transmit them to the Minister of Instruction. His tems of education, honorable to the character of some of their orders, with the measures adopied by the general Congress, statesınen.

are communicated through the same channels. The annual In most instances, however, the plans adopted have proved reports, which are published, show that the branches are all in inappropriate to the state of things; and although great things active operation. Many of ihe common schools are conducted have been talked of, there has been a want of spirit, and bui on the simultaneous and mutual system of instruction. At little has been accomplished. New Grenada, however, has the Bogota, the capital, is a female college, established by the gov. honor of persevering in this great enterprize, with a spirit and ernment, with a lady for President. Within a few years, the success far superior to the others; and the results are highly old Spanish plan of education in the colleges and universities creditable and gratifying. Happily the most patriotic and in- has been almost entirely superseded. fluential statesmen of New Grenada, bave been decided friends of education, excepting that period when Bolivar, after his re

RECENT PUBLICATIONS ON EDUCATION. turn from Peru, exercised an influence of a contrary character.

The scallered population, with their hereditary ignorance We give below short extracts from several books, pamphlets, and debasement, throw obstacles in the way of multiplying and and periodicals, on different branches of education, and chiefly improving schools, which would have disheartened men less relating to schools, that we may in this brief manner acquaint intelligent and devoted than Presidents Santander and Mos- our readers with the titles, authors, and some of the opinions of quera, and their chief coadjutors in their noble enterprize. In the publications, which we consider worthy of their attention. our country, and especially in our own State, we have had no In future we may pursue this plan still farther. experience in many of the difficulties which they had to encounter; and yet, by exerting all their strength, and using IMPROVEMENTS NEEDED IN OUR COMMON SCHOOLS. means appropriate, ihey have accomplished much, and are (From Mrs. Sigourney's “Letters to Mothers,” 240 pages 12 mo. continually doing more.

1838.- Page 135.) We propose to notice hereafter, a few leading facts connected with the establishment and sustaining of common schools in

“Our primary district schools stand most in need of reformthat quarter of our continent, with the hope that the examples defective. In every age, even among the heathen,' said Lu

ation. The education of their teachers is often exceedingly of the distinguished men by whom they have been fostered, ther, the necessity has been felt of having good tutors and may stimulate many of our readers with their generous spirit, schoolmasters, in order to make any thing respectable of a naand unconquerable perseverance. For the present, however, we will only add, that the gentlemen above mentioned, as well tion. But surely we are not to sit still and wait until they as several of their most enlightened countrymen, and others grow up of themselves. We can neither chop them out of

God will work no mira. of a kindred character, from different parts of South America wood, nor hew them out of stone. and Mexico, resided some time in New York, where opportu

cles to furnish that which we have means to provide. We nity was found to become acquainted with their views and must therefore apply our care and money to make them.' abilities; and a correspondence with some of them since their

· The establishment of Normal schools would be a blessing return, enables us to speak with confidence and some famil- to our country. Well chosen libraries, connected with the iarity, of recent as well as former events in those extensive re. It is obvious that the characier of our schools should keep

schools in our remote villages, are a desirable appendage. *** gions.

One of the most interesting men alluded 10 above, is Gene- pace with the spirit of our very advancing age. This must be ral Herran. He joined the Patriot army at the age of four- done, by demanding of teachers high degrees of intellectual atteen, but was soon made prisoner by the Spaniards, in whose tainment, of moral principles and of that deep religious feelhands he underwent severe privations. From his release till ing, which shunning sectarian barriers, incorporates itself with the end of the war, he was constantly engaged in active ser- every imparted rudiment of knowledge. When they are thus vice in Colombia and Peru. After its close he spent several elevated, let them be held in honor. Let the statesman conyears in Europe, where, meeting with Mosquera, and being sider them as his coadjutors. Let jurisprudence view them

as persuaded by his eloquent appeals as well as his example, he having power to check crime in its earliest germinations, and determined to devote himself to the improvement of public 10 diminish the population of our prisons, more than all the education at home; and employed the remainder of his time terrors of the penal code. Let the guardians of virtue and piein Europe and this country, in inquiries and observations con- them witn marked respect, and foster in their children the no

ly, take them into hallowed brotherhood. Let parents uphold cerning books, laws, and methods of instruction.

General Herran's observations while in New York, made ble sentiment of Alexarder: "I am indebted to my father for him a decided friend of Sabbath school and Temperance So- living, but to my teacher for living well.? cieties; and after his return to Bogota, the capital of New Lion for many years, should receive marks of distinction from

" Those who have faithfully labored in the work of educaGrenada, be assiduously devoted bimsell to the establishment of similar associations among bis fellow-citizens. In this he

the community." has mel will considerable success.

With great judgment, and in a manner highly creditable to ANNALS OF EDUCATION.-Seats and Writing Desks. themselves, the Congress, al iheir last session, appointed Gea We have received the October number of this valuable eral Herran Minister of the Interior and of Instruction. This Journal, which our school societies should take as a part of the office places all the school system in the whole of that exten “Teacher's Lessons," or the teachers themselves should unite sive Republic, at his direction; and he will doubiless intro- and take it together. duce improvements as fast ans! as far as the state of things will In an article on Luther's Writing Desk,” the writer, who fermil.

speaks with the experience of lienty years as a teacher in

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