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General Remarks on the Form of Plows. The form of the mold-board, according to the generally received rule, must be such, that while it tends, like a screw, to invert gradually the sod, as it passes onward, it must be neither convex nor concave, when measured by a straight-edge, placed upon it at right angles to the motion of the sod over its surface. When the straightedge, while fitting the face of the mold-board, inclines backward at the top, the form assumes the appearance of being convex; when it inclines forward, the mold-board appears concave.
It is better to approach a little towards convexity, as in that case the sod slides more easily over the surface, and the plow is less apt to become clogged with soft and wet earth.
But independently of the quality just described, there are various others belonging to the form of mold-boards. The cutting part of the plow may be improperly almost like the square end of a chisel, and the sod may slide backward on a rise, with very slight turn, until elevated to a considerable height before inversion; this must require more force of the team, and make the plow bard to hold, by nothing to resist the pressure of the sod on the left side. The character of this kind of plow may be quickly perceived by simply examining the mold-board after use; the scratches, instead of passing around horizontally as they should do, are seen to shoot upward across the face and disappear at the top.
Instead of this form, the point should be long and acute, and the form such as to begin to raise the left side of the sod the moment it is cut, and before the right side is yet reached by the cutting edge. This turning motion being continued by the mold-board, the sod is inverted without being lifted from its bed; and the pressure which turns it being opposite to the pressure of the land-side against the unplowed land, an equilibrium of these two pressures is maintained, and the plowman is not compelled to bear constantly to the right to keep the plow in its place.
S. L. GOODALE,
P. S. The committee wish it distinctly understood, that the failure of this trial was not owing to any deficiency in the preparations made which could have been anticipated as at all probable. Mr. Calvin Chamberlain, the member of the Board of Trustees charged with this department, labored unremittingly for many weeks to secure all desirable facilities, and when the trial commenced, everything was in readiness. Two dynamometers, the best the country could then afford, had been procured, and it was only the larger size of the plows, requiring motive power beyond their capacity to indicate, which prevented the measurement of their draft and the award of the premiums offered.
YORK COUNTY SOCIETY.
The Annual Exhibition was held at Saco, on the 11th, 12th and 13th of October. The weather was fine and the attendance large. The show of cattle larger than for some years previously, and the exhibition at the hall full and attractive.
LIVE STOCK. Horses. First premium on stallion, to H. B. Knight, Hollis, for a Morgan horse, 4 years old.
Second premium to Elias Milliken, Saco, for one 4 years old, sired by Morgan horse, Paragon.
First premium for matched horses, to M. S. Milliken, Biddeford.
Second premium to Philip Libbey, Dayton, for pair 4 years old twin colts.
First premium for brood mare, with colt by her side, to E. B. Randall, Limington.
Second premium for brood mare, to Lewis Roberts, Saco.
Cows. Pure bred Ayrshires were exhibited by Thos. M. Hayes and S. L. Goodale, Saco, of much excellence; and Devons, by Wm. Scamman, Saco.
First premium on Native cow, to E. M. Vinton.
Sheep. First premium for flock of sheep, to John Edgcomb.
Swine. First premium to H. T. Wentworth, for Newbury white boar.
First premium on sow and pigs, to John Hanscom.
Poultry. First premium on geese to Thomas Underwood.
DAIRY PRODUCTS. Twenty-nine parcels of butter shown, of superior quality. First premium for greatest amount, to Charles H. Milliken, Biddeford.
For best June butter, S. T. Milliken, Buxton.
FRUITS. E. B. Randall of Limington, who presented specimens of thirtythree varieties, the first premium for the best grown and greatest variety of apples.
Charles Brooks of Alfred, the second premium.
Best grown and greatest variety of pears, the first premium to Mr. Clark of Biddeford.
Charles E. Storer, Saco, the second premium.
For the dish of pears next in quality, to George A. Deering, Saco, the second premium.
Best dish of apples to Rufus McIntire, Parsonsfield, the first premium.
Best bushel of autumn apples to J. M. Hopkinson, Limington, first premium
Best bushel winter apples to E. B. Randall, Limington, the first premium.
Best Native grapes, raised in the open air, Henry J. Rice, Saco, first premium.
For next in excellence, to Charles Twombly, Saco, the second premium.
Best Foreign grapes, Stephen L. Goodale, Saco, first premium.
For next in excellence, to S. W. Luques, Biddeford, the second premium.
The committee state that in regard to apples, they had no difficulty in making the awards, although all presented were excellent, yet they were so few that a decision was easily made. They are glad, however, to say that in regard to pears and grapes, the case was different. So many excellent varieties were offered, so nearly equal in all respects, that the task was difficult. They hope to have done "substantial justice.” They would also take this occasion to speak with high commendation of a specimen of the “Delaware” grapes presented by Mr. Goodale, which seem destined to take a high rank, and to be particularly worthy the attention of growers.
They would also urge upon the attention of all who own land, however small a portion, the desirableness of cultivating fruit. With a soil unequalled for the production of fruit, our State is far from supplying its own demand. It might be far different. The same care and study which gives success in other pursuits, will ensure it in raising fruit. And those who embark in it with energy, will be sure, by and bye, to find their reward.
GRAINS, Roots, ETC. The specimens shown were numerous and fine. The committee say:
“ The number and variety of articles entered for premiums in this department this season, far surpassed the expectations of the most sanguine, almost every article being above mediocrity, and superior to anything your committee had anticipated. The season was supposed to be inauspicious for most things that come under our jurisdiction, and hence it was presumed that the show would be meagre