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EXPLANATION OF BOTANICAL TERMS USED IN FI ORA'S DICTIONARY.
Aculeata, or Aculeus, prickly, sharp pointed projections Cotyledon, (a hollow, or cavity.) In botany, the perish
from the bark, as in the rose. A thorn or spine, is able lobe of the seeds of plants. It involves, and a sharp pointed projection growing from the woody nourishes the embryo plant, and then perishes. substance of a plant, as in hawthorn.
Some seeds have two lobes, others only one, and acuminate, pointed, having a taper, or awl-shaped ex
some none. tremity.
Crenate, (scolloped,) when the teeth are rounded, and not Amentum, see Catkin.
directed towards either end of the leaf, as in ground Articulale, jointed; where one leaf grows out of the top Ivy.
of another; or the jointed culm or straw of grasses. Cucullate, hooded or cowled; rolled or folded in; as in Awl-shaped, see Subulate.
the spathe of Arum triphyllum, or Indian turnip. Awn, the sharp points or beards issuing from the glume, Culm, or straw, is the peculiar stem of grasses, rushes, etc.
are called awns, or arista, as in bearded wheat, Cyme, has the general appearance of an umbel; as in umArillary, when the flower-stalk grows between the leaf belliferous plants, its common stalks, all spring from and the stem.
one centre, but, differing from those plants, in hayBanner, see Standard.
ing the stalks variously and alternately subdivided, Barbatus, bearded-parallel hairs.
as in elder, and guelder-rose. Bifid, two-cleft.
Deciduous, falling, not perennial, or permanent. A deciduBinate, growing in pairs.
ous leaf, falls in autumn, A deciduous calyx, that Biternate, twice ternate, or doubly three-leafed.
which falls after the coral opens. Bracteated, (L. bractea,) a floral leaf, differing from the Decumbent, leaning upon the ground, the base only erect.
other leaves in shape and colour, generally situated Deflered, bending downward arch-wise. on the peduncle, so near the corolla, as easily to be Dentate, toothed, notched, having points like teeth on the mistaken for the calyx. These bractes, are indis- margin of the leaf. putable leaves, and usually obey the disposition of Denticulate, minutely toothed, those organs in the rest of the plant. They fre- Depressed, where the radical leaves are pressed close into quently assume the brightest colours, such as pink, the ground.
scarlet, etc. while the corolla itself, may be green, Dichotomous, forked; dividing into two equal branches. Caducous, falling early. A caducous calyx falls before the Diaphanous, transparent, clear.
corolla is well unfolded, as in the poppy. Caducous Digitate, fingered, when several leaflets, or little leaves leaves, fall before the end of the summer,
proceed from the summit of a common foot-stalk; Campanulate, in the form of a bell.
or, a leaf which branches into several distinct Canaliculale, channeled, having a deep furrow or chan- leaflets, like fingers.
nel; applied to the stem, leaf, or petiole of plants, Disk, the central part of a radiate compound flower. Or sometimes to the calyx.
the whole surface or top, in distinction from the Capitate, growing in a head, applied to a flower, or edge. stigma.
Divaricate, standing out wide. Capsule, the seed-vessel of a plant ; a dry membranaceous Dorsal, pertaining to the back, dorsal awn, etc. hollow pericarp.
Drupe, (Drupa, Drupæ,) a pulpy seed-vessel, consisting of Catkin, (or Amentum, L. a thong, or strap,) is a composi- a hard nut or stone, encompassed by a soft pulpy
tion of flowers and chaff, on a long, slender thread- substance, as the cherry, olive, etc. shaped receptacle; the whole somewhat resembling Emarginate, notched at the end; applied to the leaf, a cat's tail in shape, as in the willow.
coral, or stigmas Ciliate, fringed with parallel hairs.
Ensiform, see sword-shaped leaf. Claw, the narrow part of the petal below, by which it is Entire. An entire leaf is without teeth or notches. An inserted or attached.
entire stem, is one without branches. Compound flower, a power of the class syngenesia, con- Erserted, projecting or extending out of the flowers or sisting of florets with united anthers.
sheath ; as the stamens and styles of the Fuschia Cone, a scaly fruit like that of the pine. See Strobiles. coccinea, Connate, opposite, with the bases united, or growing into Fascicle, (a bundle,) a term applied to flowers on little one; as in the upper leaves of honeysuckle.
foot-stalks, variously inserted, and subdivided, colCoriaceous, (from corium, leather,) stiff, like leather, or lected into a close bundle, level at the top, as in parchment.
sweet-william Corollule, one of the partial flowers which make a com- Filiform, having the form of thread, or filament; of equal pound one; the floret in an aggregate fower.
thickness from top to bottom. Corymb, (corymbus, L, a top, head, or cluster,) a kind of Floral-leaf, see Bractea.
spike, in which the partial-stalks are gradually Floret, a little flower; the separate little flower of an longer as they stand lower on the common stalk, so aggregate flower, that all the flowers are nearly on a level.
Floscule, a partial, or lesser floret of an aggregate flower.
Gibbous, swelling on both sides, or on one,
or vessels. Abundant on the stalk, and other parts
nent character of that flower, Glreme,.or Husk, the calyx or blossoms of grasses or corn,
formed of one or more thin, dry, semi-transparent leaves, called valves, embracing the seed, often ter
mina ed by the arista, or beard. The chaff. Hirsute, rough with hairs. Hispid, rough ; having strong hairs, or bristles, more than
hirsute. Imbricated, lying over each other, like tiles on a roof; as
leaves in the bud. Inferior, below-A calyx or corolla is inferior, when it
comes out below the germ. Inflered, turned, bent. Inflorescence, a term used to express the particular manner
in which flowers are situated upon a plant. As a bunch, (thyrsus) a dense or close panicle, corymb,
spike, raceme, umbel, whorl, cyme, fascicle, etc. Involucre, or envalucrum, a sort of general calyx serving
for many flowers ; generally situated at the base of an umbel, or head; as in cornus florida, or dog
wood. Involute, rolled spirally inwards; the reverse of revolute. Keel, the under petat of a papilionaceous flower. Also
the lower side of the midrib of a leaf. Keeled, or carinated, having a longitudinal prominence on
the back.–See also Papilionaceous. Labiate, having an upper and lower lip, as in flowers of
the class Didynamia. Lamina, the border, the upper part, broad or spreading
part of a petal, in distinction from its claw. Lanceolate, shaped like a lance,oblong, and gradually taper
ing toward each extremity, spear-shaped, as in the
willow, Leaflet, a little leaf, or one of the divisions of a com
pound leaf, Legume, a seed-vessel of two valves, in which the seeds
are fixed to one suture only. A pod : differing from siliqua, (silique, E.) in which the seeds are attached
to both sutures. Limb, the border or upper spreading part of a monopeta
lous corol. Linear, of the same breadth throughout, except at the
extremities ; as in most of the grasses, Lip, the upper or under side of the mouth of a labiate
corolla, as in sage, hyssop, etc. Lobed, when divided to the middle, into parts distant from
each other, with rounded, or convex margins, as in
the leaves of sassafras, etc. Membranaceous, flatted or resembling parchment. A mem
branaceous leaf has no distinguishable pulp between
the two surfaces. Very thin and delicate. Midrib, the large central vein of a leaf, which is a con
tinuation of the petiole. Monopetalous, having only one petal, consisting of two
parts, a tube, or lower part, and a limb. Multifid, many cleft; having many divisions. Nerves, parallel veins, Obovate, inversely ovate; having the narrow end down
Officinal, officinalis, kept for sale as medicine.
longitudinal, and transverse diameters equal, Ovate, egg-shaped ; and the base wider than the other end. Palmate, hand-shaped; with the fingers extended, or
spread. Panicle, (L. Panicula) a species of inflorescence in which
the flowers or fruits are scattered on peduncles, variously subdivided, without order, as in Oat, and
grasses. Paniculated, having branches variously subdivided, as a
paniculate stem. Or having the flowers in panicles. Papilionaceous, resembling the butterfly; as the pea.
Usually four-petaled, having an upper spreading petal, called the banner or standard : two side petals,
termed wings, and a lower petal styled keel. Pappus, the down of seeds; as that of the dandelion. A
feathery appendage. Parasitic, growing on another plant, and drawing nour
ishment from it; as the Mistletoe. Patulous, spreading: as a patulous calyx, etc. Pectinated, a pinnatifid leaf, the segments of which are
remarkably narrow, like the teeth of a comb. Pedate, a ternate leaf, with its lateral leaflets compounded
in their fore-part. Pedical, the ultimate branch of a peduncle. A little stalk. Peduncle, or flower-stalk, is a partial trunk, springing
from the stem, and supporting the Powers, but not
the leaves. Pellicle, a very thin stratum, or coat. Peltate, or shield-formed, when the foot-stalk is inserted
into, or near the centre of the lower surface of the
leaf, as in the nasturtium. Pencilled, ending like a painter's pencil, or brush. Perfoliate, surrounding the stem on all sides and perfor
ated by it. It differs from connate, in not consisting of two leaves; as in Eupatorium perfoliatum, or
American Thorough-wort. Perianth, from the Gr. peri (about) and anthos (a flower)
a calyr which is contiguous to the corolla, or other
parts of the fructification. Pericarp, the seed-vessel of a plant. Permanent, a comparative term, to express the longer
continuance of any part of a plant than is usual for similar parts in others-as the calyx of the Quince,
which remains attached to the fruit till it ripens. Persistent, not falling off. Those parts of a flower are
persistent which remain till the fruit is ripe. Personate, masked. Having the mouth of the corolla
closed by a prominent palate; as in the Toad flax,
( Antirrhinum.) Petiole, a leaf-stalk; the foot-stalk of a leaf. Petiolated, growing on a foot-stalk, as in the currant. Pilose, hairy. With a stiff pubescence. Pinnate, a species of compound leaf wherein a simple
petiole has several leaflets attached to each side of it. Pinnatifid, a species of simple leaf, divided transversely,
by oblong horizontal segments, not extending to the
midrib. Pyramidal, in the form of a cone, or pyramid. Raceme, or cluster, consists of numerous, rather distant
flowers, each on its own proper stalk, and all connected by one common stalk, as a bunch of currants.
Radiant, rayed, or radiate coral or flower, is a compound
flower, consisting of a disk, in which the corollets or florets are tubular, and regular, and of a ray, in
which the florets are irregular. Radical, proceeding immediately from the root; as the
leaves of the cowslip. Ray, the diverging florets or petals which form the out
side of radiate flowers, cymes, and umbels. Receptacle, the end of a flower-stalk ; being the base to
which most or all the parts of fructification are attached. Recurved, bent back or downward, Reflered, bent backward. Reniform, kidney-shaped. Heart-shaped without the point. Reticulate, net like. Having veins distributed like network. Revolute, rolled back, or downward. Rhomboid, diamond-shape, approaching to a square. Ringent, or labiate corol, one which is irregular, mo
nopetalous, with the border usually divided into two parts, called the upper, and lower lip; gaping like
the mouth of an animal. Rugose, as leaves of sage. Runcinate, having large teeth pointing backward ; as the
leaves of the dandelion. Sarmentose, running on the ground and striking roots
from the joints, as the strawberry. Scabious, rough. Scandent, climbing, from scando, to climb : plants that
require, and seek support. Scape, a stalk which springs from the root, and supports
flowers and fruit, but no leaves. As in Narcissus,
Dandelion, and Hyacinth. Scarious, tough, thin, and semi-transparent, dry, and so
norous to the touch; as a perianth, Serrated, Serratures, like the teeth of a saw, and point
ing towards the extremity of the leaf, as in the nettle and rose. Some leaves are doubly serrated, having the teeth again cut into other little teeth, as in can
terbury bell. Sessile, or sitting, when a leaf grows immediately to the
stem, or stalk, branch, or root, without any foot-stalk,
A Sessile flower has no peduncle, or flower-stalk. Sheath, a tubular or folded leafy portion inclosing the
stem ; as the leaves of grasses. Silique, (Siliqua, L.) a pod or seed-vessel usually longer
than it is broad, with two valves or covers, and separated by a linear receptacle, the seeds alternately
fixed to both sutures, or seams, as in the common stock. Simple leaves, are such as have only a single leaf on the
petiole or foot-stalk; not divided, branched or com
pounded. Simple, not divided, branched, or compounded. Sinuale, having sinuses at the edge, Sinus, a large rounded indentation or cavity. Spadir, an elongated receptacle of flowers, commonly
proceeding from a spathe. Spathe, a sheathing calyx opening lengthwise on one side,
and consisting of one or more valves ; as in the
onion. See Spadix. Spike, a species of inflorescence, in which sessile flowers
are alternate, on a common simple peduncle, as in Wheat, Rye, Lavender, etc. An ear of corn, or grain, is called a spike ; it is particularly applicable to ears of maize,
Spur, a sharp hollow projection from a flower, commonly
the nectary. Standard, the upper petal, or banner, a papilionaceous
corol. Stipule, a scale or small leaf situated on each side, and
sometimes on one side only, of the base of the leafstalks, for the purpose of supporting them at their first appearance, as in vetches. Sometimes it is united
latterly to the foot-stalk, as in the rose. Striated, marked with fine hollow parallel lines. Strobiles, or Cone, a kind of seed-vessel, formed by a
catkin, with hardened scales, and containing a seed
within the base of each scale, as in the fir. Subsessile, almost sessile ; having very short foot-stalks. Subulate, awl-shaped ; linear, or slender at the base, and
gradually tapering towards the end, like an awl. Superior, a calyx, or corolla, is superior, when it proceeds
from the upper part of the germ. Sutures, or seams, the edges by which the valves are con
nected, which is the external covering of the seed. Sword-shaped, or Ensiform, two-edged, tapering to a point,
and somewhat convex on both surfaces, as in the Iris. Tendril, a filiform appendage of certain vines, which sup
ports them by turning round other objects. Terminal, when it terminates a stem, or branch. Ternate, growing by threes, as in Trefoils. Thread-shaped, see filiform. Tomentous, downy, nappy, cottony; covered with hairs
so close as to be scarcely discernible. Trifid, divided into three parts; by linear sinuses, with
straight margins; three-cleft. Truncate, having a square termination as if cut off; as
the leaves of the Liriodendron Tulipifera. Tuberous, from tuber, a bunch. Consisting of roundish
fleshy bodies, or tubers, connected into a bunch by intervening threads; as the roots of potatoes, arti
chokes, etc. Umbel, a kind of inflorescence in which the flower-stalks
diverge from one centre like rays; as in the Parsnip, Parsley, etc.
See Cyme. Undulate, when the middle part of the leaf, especially as
it approaches the margin, is acutely folded up and
down, as in the Mallows. Valve, the outer coat, shell or covering of a capsule or
other pericarp, or rather one of the pieces which compose it; also, one of the leaflets composing the
calyx and corol in grasses. Veiny, when the fibres on the surface of the leaf are
branched, as in the hawthorn. Ventricose, swelling out in the middle; as a ventricious
perianth. Verticillate, whorled. Having leaves given off in a cir.
cle round the stem. Villous, hairy, having the hairs long and soft. Viviparous, producing a collateral offspring by means of
bulbs. Whorl, or Verticillate, in which the flowers surround the
stem in a sort of ring, though they may not perhaps be inserted on all sides of it, but merely on two
opposite sides, and even on one side only. Wings, the two lateral petals of a papilionaceous flower, Winged, having the sides extended into a leafy expan.
DEFINITION OF THE SPECIFIC NAMES OF THE FLOWERS USED IN FLORA'S DICTIONARY.
Abies, L. Ainsworth defines it-1. A Fir tree—2. Å ship Lutea, L. Pale yellow, like the yolk of an egg.
3. A plant. The Pinus abies being much used in Maculatum, L. 'Spotted. the construction of ships, etc.
Major, L. Greater, bigger. Acris, L. Sharp, sour.
Matronalis, L. Modest, pertaining to Matrons. Alba, Albus, L. White, hoary, pale, wan.
Medium, L. Middle sized, moderate sized, Annuus, L. Annual, yearly ; living but one year. Millefolium, L. A thousand-leaved. Argentifolium, L. Silver-leaved.
Minor, L. Less, smaller. Atro-purpurea, of a dark purple colour. ,
Multiflora, L. Many-leaved, Autumnale, L. Of Autumn.
Muschato, L. Musky.
Muscosa, L. Mossy, or full of moss.
Niger, Nigrum, L. Black.
Nobilis, L. Known, or well known. Barbatus, L. Bearded.
Odorata, Odoratissimum, L. Sweet scented. Bella donna. Because the ladies make a cosmetic of the Officinale, Officinalis, L. Kept for sale as medicinal.
juice, or distilled water. Some derive the name from Opulus, L, Ainsworth defines it “ A tree which the the intoxicating quality of the plant-Atropa bella French call opier-some a Witch-hazel.” donna.
Parvifolia, small-leaved. Bicolor, L. Of two colours, parti-coloured.
Peltatum, L. Having the shape of a target, or round shield. Campanula, see note on Venus' Looking Glass.
Persica, Persicus, of, or belonging to Persia. A Peach tree. Canadensis, L. of Canada.
Pomifragrans, L. Apple-scented. Candidum, L. See note on white Lily.
Pratense, L. From pratensis, of, or belonging to a meadow. Capitatum, L. From caput, a head.
Pseudo, L. Counterfeit, false. Cærulea, azure, sky-blue.
Pulegioides, from pulegium, the herb pennyroal, or puCesius, L. Grey coloured.
lial royal. Cardinalis, chief, principal.
Pumila, L, A dwarf. Caryophyllus, from the L, Caryohyllum, a clove. Clove- Punica, L. Scarlet colour, the Tyrian or Carthaginian dye, scented.
Quercifolium, L. Oak-leaved. Caudatus, L. Tailed, that hath a tail.
Quotidiana, L. Daily, every day. Centifolia, L. Hundred-leaved.
Rhæus, wild poppy, from the Gr. Rheo, to fall off. Chalcedonica, see note on scarlet Lychnis.
Rigida, L. Rigid, hard, Cheiranthus, see note on the Wall Flower.
Rosea, L. Like a rose. Chinensis, L. Of China.
Rosafolius, L. Rose-leaved, Coronarius, L. That belongs to,or serves to make garlands. Rubeus, L. Red, ruddy, Cotinus, Gr. Kotinos, a kind of olive.
Rubiginosa, see note on Eglantine. Cristata, L. Crested, tufted.
Rubor-virginea, L. Rubor, red; Virginea, Virgin like. Crystallinum, L. A crystal glass; like it in clearness. Rubrifolia, L. Of a red colour, Cuculi, L. From cuculio, a kind of hood, to keep off rain. Scoparia, from scopa, a besom, or broom. Damascena, probably from the name of the country of Sempervirens, L. Always flourishing, always green. Damascene, around Damascus.
Somniferum, L. Causing sleep, Dioica, see note on Bachelor's Button.
Speculum, see note on Venus' Looking glass. Dulcis, L. Sweet.
Stramonium, L. Probably from stramen, a spreading. Florida, Floridus, L. Flowery, adorned with flowers. Suaveolens, L. Sweet scented. Formosissima, L. Beautiful, handsome.
Syriacus, L. Syrian. Fortunatum, fortunate, prosperous, happy, etc.
Taraxacum, see note on Dandelion. Glauca, Glaucus, L. Grey or blue, sea-green, pale bluish Tinctoria, L. Of or belonging to Dyers. green.
Tinus, the L. for “a kind of bay-tree, Laurustinus," Globosa, L. Globular.
Tradescanti, see note on American Star-wort.
Trionum, see note on Hibiscus.
form. Incanus, see note on Gilly Flower.
Unica, L. Unique, singular, notable, excellent, Indica, Indicum, L. of India.
Variegatus, L. Variegated. Inermis, L. Thornless; unarmed, without arms.
Vernalis, L. From Vernus, of, or belonging to the spring. Infortunatum, unfortunate, unhappy, etc.
Veris, L. Real, true. Inodorus, L. Without scent.
Versicolor, L. Of sundry colours. Inquinans, L. Defiling, blemishing.
Virginica, L. of Virginia. Laburnum, see note.
Vinifera, L. Vine bearing. Latifolia, L. Broad leaved.
Vulgaris, L. Ordinary, common, much used.
DEDICATION OF FLOWERS.
The Roman Catholic Monks, or the observers of Roman Catholic rules, have compiled a catalogue of Flowers, for each day in the year, and dedicated each flower to a particular Saint, on account of its flowering about the time of the Saint's festival. Such appropriations form a Floral Directory, which has been abstracted from Hone's Every Day Book, printed in London in the year 1826.
JANUARY.. 1. Laurustinus, Viburnum tinus, St. Faine or Fanchea, an Irish saint, of the sixth century.
2. Groundsel, Senecio vulgaris, St. Macarius, of Alexandria, A. D. 394.
3. Iris, Persian, Iris persica, St. Genevieve, patroness of Paris, A. D. 422.
4. Hazel, Corylus avellana, St. Titus, disciple of St. Paul.
5. Hellebore, Helleborus fætidus, St. Simeon Stylites, of Rome.
6. Moss, screw, Tortula rigida, St. Nilammon,
January the 6th, is called twelfth day, (by the Frenchs Le jour des Rois,) because it falls on the twelfth day after Christmas. There is a difference of opinion as to the origin of Twelfth Day, yet all concur in the same end; that is, to do honour to the Eastern Magi. Brand tells us, “ that the practice of choosing a king on twelfth day, is similar to a custom that existed among the ancient Greeks and Romans, who on the festival days of Saturn, about this season of the year, drew lots for kingdoms, and like kings, exercised their temporary authority.” Mr. Fosbroke affirms that “the king of Saturnalia was elected by beans, and from thence came our king and qucen, on this day.” In France the Twelfth-cake is plain, with a bean; the drawer of the slice containing the bean, is King or Queen. All drink to her, or his Majesty, who reigns, and receives homage from all during the evening. “ They come ! they come ! each blue-eyed sport,
The twelfth-night king, and all his court'Tis mirth fresh crowned with mistletoe ;
Music, with her merry fiddles,
Joy, 'on light fantastic toe,'
Singing and dancing as they go." 7. Laurel, Portugal, Prunus lusitanica, St. Kentigerna.
8. Tremella, yellow, Tremella deliquescens, St. Gudula. Patroness of Brussels.
9. Laurel, common, Prunus lauro-cerasus, or common small fruited cherry-St, Marciana, of Rome.
10. Gorse, Uler Europeus, St. William, of Bourges, A. D. 1207.
11, Moss, early, Bryum hornum, Swan-neck thread. moss. St. Theodosius.
12. Moss, hygrometic, Funaria hygrometica, St. Arcadius.
13. Yew Tree, common Taxus baccata, St. Veronica. A nun of Milan, A. D. 1497.
14. Strawberry, barren, Fragaria sterilis, St. Hilary, A. D. 368.
15. Ivy, Hedera helix, St. Paul—the first Hermit,
16. Nettle, common red Dead, N. Lamium purpureum, St. Marcellus. Pope.
17. Anemone, garden, Anemone hortensis, St. Anthony. Patriarch of Monks, A. D. 251.
18. Moss, four-toothed, Bryum pellucidum, St, Prisca, A Roman Martyr.
19. Nettle, white Dead, Lamium album, St. Martha. A Roman Martyr, A. D. 270.
20. Nettle, woolly Dead, Lamium garganicum, St. Fabian. Pope.
21. Hellebore, black, Helleborus niger, St. Agnes. A special Patroness of purity. Beheaded at the age of 13, A, D, 304,
22. Grass, early whitlow, Draba verna, St. Vincent. A Spanish Martyr.
23. Peziza, Peziza acetabulum, St. Raymond, of Pennafort, A. D. 1275.
24. Moss, stalkless, Phascum muticum, St. Timothy. Disciple of St. Paul, A. D, 250.
25, Hellebore, winter, Helleborus hyemalis. The conversion of St. Paul.
On this day, (25th Jan.) prognostications of the months were drawn for the whole year, If fair, and clear, there was to be plenty ; if cloudy, or misty, much cattle would die; if rain, or snow fell, then it presaged a dearth; and if windy, there would be wars.
If Saint Paul's Day be fair and clear,
Willsford's Nature's Secrets.
St. Paul's Day, is the first festival of an Apostle, in the year. According to Dr. Foster, it is the festival of the conversion of St. Paul.
26. Butter-bur, white, Tussilago alba, or Colt's foot. St. Polycarp.
27. Moss, earth, Phascum cuspidatum, St. Chrysostom.