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(a) Division of Passport Control.—Examination and adjudication of applications for passports and for registration in consulates of the United States as American citizens; issuance of departmental passports; supervision over the department's passport agencies in New York, Chicago, San Francisco, New Orleans, Seattle, and Boston; direction of clerks of courts who take passport applications; custody of applications for passports and registration; correspondence regarding citizenship, passports, registration, and right to protection while abroad; issuance of letters of introduction.

(b) Division of Publications.—The chief of the division is the editor of the department; compiles the session laws, Statutes at Large of the United States, papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, and other publications; has custody of the original laws, treaties, proclamations, and executive orders; printing of the slip laws and printing and distribution of treaties, proclamations, and executive orders; custody of Indian treaties and other historical manuscripts, of papers relating to constitutional amendments and the ascertainment of electors, and of records of boundary and claims commissions. The office of the Geographer and the Library are in this division.

VII. Solicitor 13

Deals with questions of municipal and international law; handles claims of citizens of the United States against foreign governments and of nationals of foreign countries against the United States; matters pertaining to international extraditions; the protection of interests of American citizens in foreign countries; rights of aliens in the United States; international arbitrations; and drafting and interpretation of treaties; legal questions in connection with passports, visés and naturalization. This office has contact with the international claims commissions. 14

VIII. Foreign Service Personnel Board

This board is composed of the Undersecretary of State, chairman, and the Assistant Secretaries mentioned under IV and V, supra, as members, and the members of the Executive Committee of the Foreign Service Personnel Board. It is charged with the preparation of efficiency records of foreign service officers; submission to the Secretary of State of names of foreign service officers recommended for advancement in the service, for designation as counselors of embassy or legation, and for promotion to the grade of minister; recommendations to the Secretary of State regarding the assignment of foreign service officers to posts and their transfer from one branch of the service to the other according to the needs of the service; recommendations to the Secretary of State regarding separations from the service. The office of the executive committee of the Foreign Service Personnel Board is charged with the receipt and custody of all applications for appointment in the foreign service and with arranging for examinations for entrance to the foreign service. Correspondence relating thereto; prints and distributes blank forms of application for appointment in the foreign service and pamphlets regarding requirements for entrance therein.12

13 Departmental Order No. 321 of Feb. 21, 1905.

14 See Thorpe, Preparation of International Claims, West Pub. Co., 1924, chap. XV, and International Law Chietly as Interpreted and Applied by the United States, by Charles Cheney Hyde.

(a) Executive Commitee of the Foreign Service Personnel Board.—The duties of said Executive Committee are:

(1) To take into its possession and consolidate immediately all records and material relating to the personnel of the foreign service, both diplomatic and consular.

(2) To keep the efficiency records of all Foreign Service officers and employees.

(3) To collect, collate, and record pertinent data relating to foreign service personnel.

(4) To submit to the Foreign Service Personnel Board recommendations for the assignment of officers to posts and the transfer of such officers from one branch of the service to the other.

(5) To recommend the granting of leaves of absence. (6) To interview applicants and prospective applicants for the Foreign Service.

(7) To examine and recommend for appointment applicants for positions as subordinate employees in the Foreign Service.

(8) To maintain contact with Foreign Service officers and employees while on visits to the United States. For this purpose a register of visiting officers and employees shall be kept.

All personnel records are held strictly confidential, and no papers, documents, data or reports relating thereto are revealed, except to the Secretary of State, the members of the Foreign Service Personnel Board, and the Board of Review.

"At least once a year, or whenever the Secretary of State shall so order, all personnel records, ratings, and accumulated material shall be examined impartially by a Board of Review, and a report rendered to the Foreign Service Personnel Board as to the relative standing of officers and employees. The Board of Review shall be composed of five members, of whom the chairman of the Executive Committee shall be the chairman, and the remaining four drawn from Foreign Service officers of high rank by the Secretary of State.” 15

IX. The Foreign Service School

The President, by Executive Order of June 7, 1924, having provided for the establishment of a Foreign Service School in the Department of State, the following rules and regulations were made for the governance of the School :16

(1) The Chief Instructor shall be selected from among Foreign Service officers of class five or over. (2) He shall have the following duties :

(a) To prepare and submit to the School Board for approval a

complete schedule of work to be covered during the term of

instruction. (b) To select instructors in the various subjects from among the

qualified officers of the Department of State, the Foreign Seryice, the other executive departments of the government, and other available sources.

12 43 Stat. 140. 15 Departmental Order No. 295 of June 9, 1924. 16 Departmental Order No. 296 of June 9, 1924.

(c) To instruct the School in subjects selected and approved by the

Board. (d) To maintain the discipline of the School and bear responsibility

therefor. (e) To keep a record of attendance and an impartial, confidential rat

ing of each pupil with respect to his qualifications for the

Foreign Service. (f) To act as a member of the School Board. (g) To make reports on the work of the School and the individual

pupils at the end of the term of instruction, or whenever re

quired by the School Board or the Secretary of State. (3) Each term of instruction shall begin and end on dates to be fixed by the School Board.

(4) Each foreign service pupil shall be assigned to one of the divisions or bureaus of the Department of State, where he will report for duty when not attending classes.

(5) The chiefs of the divisions or bureaus shall report to the Chief Instructor the character of the work done by the pupils assigned to them, together with any delinquencies. 5. Organization

All divisions, bureaus, and offices report to the Undersecretary concerning political questions; to the Assistant Secretaries as indicated by the nature of their several missions, except that, in administrative matters, business ordinarily is routed to the Chief Clerk.

The organization shown on the chart is self-explanatory in the light of the foregoing description of "Activities."

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6. Publications

(a) The Secretary of State is the only cabinet officer who does not make a yearly report on the business of his department, the only annual report of a Sezretary of State being Secretary Olney's of 1896, which appeared in the volume of Foreign Relations and was also issued separately. From earliest times the President, in his annual message, gave a synopsis of our relations with foreign countries, and this was usually supplemented by certain State Department papers, sometimes a single treaty, but more often a number of diplomatic letters. From these accompanying papers grew up the publication now known as Foreign Relations.

(b) Among general State Department publications 17 the following may be noted:

(1) Attorneys General. Digest of published opinions of Attorneys General and of leading decisions of federal courts with reference to international law, treaties, and kindred subjects (by John L. Cadwalader). 1877.

(2) Papers and correspondence relative to claim against Brazil concerning (brig.) Caroline, and to proceedings of James Watson Webb respecting it. 1874.

(3) Cuba. Correspondence of Department of State in relation to seizure of American vessels and injuries to American citizens during hostilities in Cuba. 1870.

(4) Executive officer of United States, 1789-1901. Oct. 19, 1901.

(5) Extradition. Report on extradition, with returns of all cases from August 9, 1842, to January 1, 1890, and index, by John Bassett Moore. 1890.

(6) France. Combattants Français de Guerre Americaine, 1778-83, containing the name of every Frenchman who served with American colors in the Revolutionary War.

(7) French Spoliations.18 Report of Secretary of State relative to papers on file in Department of State touching unsettled claims of citizens of United States against France for spoliations prior to July 31, 1801. 1884.

(8) Hawaii. Papers relating to annexation of Hawaiian Islands to United States. 1893 (52 Cong. 2d Sess. S. Ex. Docs. 76 and 77); serial No. 3062.

17 See Checklist of U. S. Public Documents 1789-1909, Gov't Printing Office pp. 895–903. Publications should be obtained from Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C., who will, upon application, furnish a free price list (No. 65). 18 Authorized by Act Feb. 20, 1897 (29 Stat. 584).

(9) MacCord, Victor Hugo. In re claim of Victor H. MacCord against Peru; brief for United States. 1898.

(10) Nicaragua. Claims of citizens of United States against Nicaragua, May 20, 1879.

(11) Passports. American passport, its history, and digest of laws, rulings and regulations governing its issuance by Department of State. Gaillard Hunt.

(12) American Foreign Service. Government Printing Office-price 5 cents.

(13) A Short Account of the Department of State. Government Printing Office.

(14) Prize Cases. Reports of cases in prize argued and determined in Circuit and District Courts for Southern District of New York, 1861-65, by Samuel Blatchford. 1866.

(15) Red Cross. History of Red Cross. Treaty of Geneva and its adoption by United States. American Association of Red Cross. 1883.

(16) George Washington. Calendar of applications and recommendations for office during presidency of George Washington, by Gaillard Hunt. 1901.

(17) Daniel Webster. Correspondence between Daniel Webster and Lord Ashburton: (1) McLeod's Case; (2) Creole Case; (3) Subject of impressment. 1842.

(18) Various publications in regard to commercial regulations of foreign countries; privileges and restrictions of commercial intercourse of United States with foreign nations; changes and modifications in commercial systems of foreign nations.

(19) Information regarding appointment and promotions in consular service, diplomatic service, etc.

(20) General Index to International Law Situations, Topics, and Discussions, Naval War College, vols. 1-20, 1901-1920. Price, 55 cents.

(21) Digest of the International Law of the United States, Taken from Documents Issued by Presidents and Secretaries of State, and from Decisions of Federal Courts and Opinions of Attorneys General.” Francis Wharton, Solicitor of Department of State. 1886.

(22) Digest of International Law, as Embodied in Diplomatic Discussions, Treaties, and Other International Agreements, International Awards, the Decisions of Municipal Courts, and the Writings of Jurists, and Especially in Documents, Published and Unpublished, Issued by Presidents and Secretaries of State of the United States, the Opinions of the Attorneys General, and the Decisions of Courts, Federal and State.” John Bassett Moore, 1906.18

(23) Consular Regulations.

7. General Guide to Practitioners Before the State Department

(a) There are no requirements for admission of attorneys to practice. The division of functions indicated in the foregoing description under "Distribution of Duties," summarized, indicates that reference to the various offices for specified interests that the citizen is most likely to be interested in should be made as follows:

18 Authorized by Act Feb. 20, 1897 (29 Stat. 584).

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