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9. Organization

The Secretary of Labor.—The law creating the Department of Labor provides that all duties performed and all power and authority possessed or exercised by the head of any executive department at the time of the passage of the said law, in and over any bureau, office, officer, board, branch, or division of the public service by said act transferred to the Department of Labor, or any business arising therefrom or pertaining thereto, or in relation to the duties performed by and authority conferred by law upon such bureau, officer, office, board, branch, or division of the public service, whether of an appellate or advisory character or otherwise, are vested in and exercised by the head of the said Department of Labor. The Secretary of Labor is also given authority and directed to investigate and report to Congress a plan of co-ordination of the activities, duties and powers of the office of the Secretary of Labor with the activities, duties, and powers of the present bureaus, commissions and departments, so far as they relate to labor and its conditions, in order to harmonize and unify such activities, duties and powers, with a view to additional legislation to further define the duties and powers of the Department of Labor, and to make such special investigations and reports to the President or Congress as may be required by them or which he may deem necessary, and to report annually to Congress upon the work of the Department of Labor.

(1) Office of the Secretary.-(a) The Secretary.

(b) Assistant Secretary.—The Assistant Secretary performs such duties as shall be prescribed by the Secretary or may be required by law. He becomes the Acting Secretary of Labor in the absence of the Secretary.

(c) Second Assistant Secretary.—The Second Assistant Secretary performs such duties as shall be prescribed by the Secretary or may be required by law; he becomes acting Secretary of Labor in the absence of the Secretary and Assistant Scretary.

(d) Solicitor.-While the solicitor is an officer of the Department of Justice, he has his office with the Department of Labor, and his work is devoted entirely to matters of law arising in this department.

He renders formal legal opinions, examines and drafts contracts and leases, forms of bonds, etc., drafts legislative bills, and generally attends to the legal affairs of the Department.

(e) Chief Clerk.-Under the direction of the Secretary, the chief clerk has direct charge of the various divisions of the Office of the Secretary, and performs such duties as are usually performed by similar officers in all of the executive departments.

The chief clerk is charged with the general supervision of the clerks and employees of the department; the enforcement of the general regulations of the department; the superintendency of all buildings occupied by the department in the District of Columbia; the general supervision of all expenditures from the appropriations for contingent expenses, printing and binding, and rents; the receipt, distribution, and transmission of the mail; and the discharge of all business of the Secretary's office not otherwise assigned. (el) Disbursing Clerk.—The disbursing clerk prepares requisitions for pub

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lic funds from appropriations for the department. He also pays its obligations and does the general accounting of the department. Naturalization fees and moneys received from aliens in lieu of bond are accounted for by him.

The disbursing clerk is charged by the Secretary of Labor with the duty of preparing all requisitions for the advance of public funds from appropriations for the Department of Labor to disbursing clerks and special disbursing agents charged with the disbursement of public funds; the keeping of appropriation ledgers relating to the advance and expenditure of all items of appropriations. He has charge of the issuing, recording, and accounting for government requests for transportation issued to officers of the department for official travel; the audit and payment of all vouchers and accounts submitted from the various offices, bureaus, and services of the department; the general accounting of the department; and the accounting for all naturalization receipts received under the provisions of the Act of June 29, 1906.

(e2) Appointment Clerk. — The appointment clerk has charge of all clerical work incident to appointments which are made under the jurisdiction of the department. He is also the custodian of oaths of office, bonds of officers, personnel files, retirement records, and efficiency reports.

(e3) Chief, Division of Publications and Supplies.—The Chief of the Division of Publications and Supplies is charged by the Secretary of Labor with the conduct of all business the department transacts with the Government Printing Office and the correspondence it entails; the general supervision of printing, including the editing and preparation of copy, illustrating and binding, the distribution of publications, and the maintenance of mailing lists. All blank books and blank forms and the printed stationery of all kinds used by the bureaus and offices of the department in Washington and the various outside services of the department are supplied by him. The advertising done by the department is in his charge. Under the direction of the chief clerk he has supervision of all the work incident to the purchase and distribution of supplies for the department proper and for the services of the department outside of Washington and of the keeping of detailed accounts of all expenditures from the appropriations for contingent expenses and printing and binding of the department. He receives, verifies, and preserves the semiannual returns of property from the offices and bureaus of the department which are supplied from the contingent appropriation, and examines and reports on the semiannual property returns of all other bureaus and services.

(e4) Librarian, Department Library.—The library now contains approximately 100,000 books and pamphlets, a unique collection of carefully selected material covering the whole field of social welfare. It is particularly rich in pamphlet material and in reports of special investigations, not to be found usually in general collections. Such reports contain the record of the newest and most significant developments in the field of social research.

(2) The Director of Conciliation.
(3) The Director General, United States Employment Service.

(4) The Director, Bureau of Industrial Housing and Transportation (United States Housing Corporation).

(5) Assistant Commissioner, Commission of Labor Statistics.
(6) Commissioner General of Immigration.
(7) Commissioner of Naturalization.
(8) Director, Women's Bureau.-See chapter on Women's Bureau.

10. Publications

(a) Annual Reports of the Secretary of Labor. Government Printing Office, Washington.

(b) James J. Davis, Humanity in Government. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

(c) Child Labor.—No. 93, Child Labor.-Outlines for Study, Separate No. 4 from Child Care and Child Welfare, prepared in co-operation with the Federal Board for Vocational Education (includes addenda covering recent laws); third edition; No. 114, Child Labor in the United States—Ten Questions Answered (revised edition); No. 123, Child Labor on Maryland Truck Farms; No. 126, Minors in Automobile and Metal-Manufacturing Industries in Michigan; No. 129, Child Labor in North Dakota; No. 130, Child Labor and the Work of Mothers on Norfolk Truck Farms; No. 132, Work of Children on Truck and Small-Fruit Farms in Southern New Jersey; and No. 134, The Welfare of Children in Cotton-Growing Areas of Texas; and Trend of Child Labor in the United States, 1920 to 1923. Issued by Children's Bureau.

(d) Delinquency and Dependency.—No. 121, Juvenile Court Standards—Report of the committee appointed by the Children's Bureau, August, 1921, to formulate juvenile court standards, adopted by a conference held under the auspices of the Children's Bureau and the National Probation Association, Washington, D. C., May 16, 1923; No. 124, List of References on Juvenile Courts and Probation in the United States and a Selected List of Foreign References; No. 125, Unemployment and Child Welfare; Laws Relating to Mothers' Pensions in the United States, passed during the years 1920 to 1923, inclusive; What Child Dependency Means in the District of Columbia and How It Can Be Prevented (separate from Child Dependency in the District of Columbia, which is now in press). Issued by the Children's Bureau.

(e) General.-No. 131, State Commissions for the Study and Revision of Child Welfare Laws; No. 127, Child Welfare in the Insular Possessions of the United States-Part I, Porto Rico. Issued by the Children's Bureau.

(f) Price List No. 33 of Government Publications on Labor, for sale by the Superintendent of Documents.



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The Bureau of Immigration is charged with the administration of the laws relating to immigration and of the Chinese exclusion laws. It supervises all expenditures under the appropriation for "expenses of regulating immigration.” It causes alleged violations of the immigration, Chinese exclusion, and alien contract labor laws to be investigated, and when prosecution is deemed advisable submits evidence for that purpose to the proper United States district attorney. 2. History

This is the second oldest of the permanent bureaus of the Labor Department, having been organized in 1891, in the Treasury Department, under the title of "Office of the Superintendent of Immigration.”1

As early as 1819 there was legislation to secure some degree of comfort and convenience for steerage passengers en route to the United States and there were several statutes during the next 30 years which sought to ameliorate the conditions of immigrants. The Coolie Act 3 of 1862 was designed to prevent American traffic in coolies between China and the West Indies. A Commissioner of Immigration, to be under the direction of the Department of State, was authorized in 1864, and an Emigrant Office was established in New York. This act was repealed in 1868.5 Acts referring to the head tax 6 imposed by states and to exclusion of involuntary-Oriental and immoral importations tended to improve conditions. State activities in taxing and inspecting immigrants were declared unconstitutional. 8

Then followed progressive legislation toward centralized organization.”

The Bureau of Immigration was established in the Treasury Deparment on July 12, 1891, with inspectorial offices at ports of entry and medical inspection of alien arrivals.

The President was empowered to suspend immigration during the existence of contagious diseases 10

1 Act March 3, 1891 (26 Stat. 1085).

2 Act March 2, 1819 (3 Stat. 488); Act Feb. 22, 1847 (9 Stat. 127); Act March 2, 1847 (9 Stat. 149); Act May 17, 1848 (9 Stat. 223).

3 Act Feb. 19, 1862 (12 Stat. 340).
4 Act July 4, 1864 (13 Stat. 385).
8 Act March 30, 1868 (15 Stat. 56, 58).
6 Act May 31, 1870 (16 Stat. 140, 144).
7 Act March 3, 1875 (18 Stat. 477).

8 Passenger Cases, 7 How, 283, 12 L. Ed. 702; Henderson v. Mayor of New York, 92 U. S. 259, 23 L. Ed. 543.

9 Act Aug. 3, 1882 (22 Stat. 214); Act March 3, 1883 (32 Stat. 488, 517); Act June 26, 1884 (23 Stat. 53, 58, $ 22); Act Feb. 26, 1885 (23 Stat. 332); Act Feb. 23, 1887 (24 Stat. 414); Act Oct. 19, 1888 (25 Stat. 565, 566); Act March 3, 1891 (26 Stat. 1084). 10 Act Feb. 15, 1893 (27 Stat. 449, 452, § 7 (Comp. St. & 9162]).

Provision was made for enforcement of immigration and contract labor laws 11 and other administrative features.12

Laws relating to the immigration of Chinese passed from a protective nature to exclusion. 13

At first, general provisions of the immigration laws applied to Japanese as to European immigrants, but apprehensions about Japanese laborers induced a change of policy.14

The Division of Information was established in the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization in 1907,15 was transferred to the United States Employment Service during the World War, and returned to the Bureau of Immigration in 1918. :'.

The Seamen's Act of 1915 16 opened the way for easy avoidance of immigration rules, which was remedied by the Immigration Act of 1917.

Passport administration was provided by the Act of May 22, 1918.17 An act of 1918 18 authorized exclusion and expulsion from the United States of alien members of anarchistic and similar classes. The readmission to the United States of certain aliens who had been conscripted, or who had volunteered for

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11 Act March 3, 1893 (27 Stat. 569).

12 Act Aug. 18, 1894 (28 Stat. 372, 390, 391); Act March 2, 1895 (28 Stat. 764, 780); Act June 6, 1900 (31 Stat, 588); Act April 29, 1902 (32 Stat. 176); Act Feb. 14, 1903 (32 Stat. 825, 826 [Comp. St. $ 857]), providing for the transfer of immigration to the Department of Commerce and Labor; Act March 3, 1903 (32 Stat. 1213); Act March 22, 1904 (33 Stat. 144); Resolution April 28, 1904 (33 Stat. 591); Act Feb. 3, 1905 (33 Stat. 631, 684); Act Feb. 6, 1905 (33 Stat. 689, 692, § 6 [Comp. St. § 3911]); Act March 3, 1905 (33 Stat. 1156, 1182); Act June 29, 1906 (34 Stat. 596); Act Feb. 20, 1907 (34 Stat. 898, 909); Act March 26, 1910 (36 Stat. 263); Act Feb. 5, 1917 (39 Stat. 874); Act March 4, 1909 (35 Stat.. 915, 969); Act June 25, 1910 (36 Stat. 825, 826 [Comp. St. $8 8812–8817]); Act March 4, 1911 (36 Stat. 1363, 1442); Act Aug. 24, 1912 (37 Stat. 417, 476); Act March 4, 1913 (37 Stat. 736, 737); Act Oct. 16, 1918 (40 Stat. 1012 [Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1919, 88 4289146(1)-428944b(3)]); Resolution Oct. 19, 1918 (40 Stat. 1014 [Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1919, § 428944bbb}); Act May 10, 1920 (41 Stat. 593 [Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, 88 4289441(4)-428914 (6)]); Act May 19, 1921 (42 Stat. 5); Resolution May 11, 1922 (42 Stat. 540).

13 Act Feb. 19, 1862 (12 Stat. 340); Act March 3, 1875 (18 Stat. 477); Treaty between United States and China, Nov. 17, 1880 (22 Stat. 826); Act May 6, 1882 (22 Stat. 58); Act July 5, 1884 (23 Stat. 115); Act Sept. 13, 1888 (25 Stat. 476, 477); Act May 5, 1892 (27 Stat. 25); Act Nov. 3, 1893 (28 Stat. 7. [Comp. St. $8 4320-4324]); Treaty, United StatesChina, Dec. 8, 1894 (28 Stat. 1210), expired same month; Joint Resolution July 7, 1898 (30'Stat: 751), and Act April 30, 1900 (31 Stat. 141, 161 (Comp. St. § 4336]); Act June 6, 1900 (31 Stat. 611); Act March 3, 1901 (31 Stat. 1093 [Comp. St. 88 433244334); Act April 29, 1902 (32 Stat. 176); Act Feb. 14, 1903 (32 Stat. 825, 828 [Comp. St. $ 858]); Act April 27, 1904 (33 Stat. 394, 428 [Comp. St. § 4337]); Act Aug. 24, 1912 (37 Stat. 417, 476); Act June 23, 1913 (38 Stat. 65); Act Feb. 5, 1917 (39 Stat. 874, 889).

14 Act Feb. 20, 1907 (34 Stat. 898). See Immigration Regulations of July 1, 1907, rule 21. See Department of Commerce and Labor, Annual Report, 1908, pp. 221, 222, for “Gentlemen's Agreement," and Id. p. 200, in re “picture brides.”

15 Section 40 of Act Feb. 20, 1907 (34 Stat. 898).

Act March 4, 1915 (38 Stat. 1164). 17:40 Stat. 559 (Comp. St. 1918, Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1919, $$ 7628e-7628h).

18 Act Oct. 16, 1918 (40 Stat. 1012), amended by Act June 5, 1920 (41 Stat. 1008 (Comp. St. Ann. Supp. 1923, 8 428944b(1)]).

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