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ment, and ideals of the American republics in schools and universities, the study
of Spanish in the United States and of English in Latin America, and the in-
terchange of students and educators of all grades.
3. Functions

(a) The functions of the Pan-American Union are:

(1) To compile and distribute information and reports concerning the commercial, industrial, agricultural, and educational development, as well as the general progress of the American countries.

(2) To compile and classify information referring to the treaties and conventions concluded among the American republics and between these and other states, as well as to the legislation of the former.

(3) To assist in the development of commercial and cultural relations between the American republics and of their more intimate mutual acquaintance.

(4) To act as a permanent commission of the International Conferences of American States, to keep their records and archives, to assist in obtaining ratification of the treaties and conventions, as well as compliance with the resolutions adopted, and to prepare the program and regulations of each Conference.

(5) To submit to the various governments, at the time of the holding of each Conference, a report upon the work of the institution since the close of the last Conference, and also special reports upon any matters, which may have been referred to it.

(6) To perform any other functions intrusted to it by the Conference or by the Governing Board, by virtue of the powers conferred upon it by this resolution.

(b) The Pan-American Union will have the co-operation of the following permanent commissions, to be designated by the Governing Board : 3

(1) For the development of economic and commercial relations between the American republics.

(2) For the study of all matters relating to the international organization of labor in America.

(3) For the study of questions relating to hygiene in the countries of the continent.

(4) For the development of intellectual co-operation, with special reference to co-operation between universities.

4. Organization; National Participation

"The governments of the American republics enjoy, as of right, representation at the International Conferences of American States and in the Pan-American Union."

“The government of the Pan-American Union shall be vested in a Governing Board, composed of the diplomatic representatives of the American republics

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2 Article II of resolution adopted at Fifth International Conference of American States, at Santiago, Chili, 1923.

3 Article V, of resolution adopted at Fifth International Conference of American States, at Santiago, Chili, 1923.

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accredited to the government of the United States of America, and the Secretary of State of that country." ;

“An American republic, which for any reason may not have a diplomatic representative accredited to the government of the United States of America, may appoint a special representative on the Governing Board. In case of the temporary absence, due to official leave or illness, of an Ambassador, Minister or Chargé d'Affaires accredited at Washington, he may be replaced on the Board by a Special Representative of the respective government, who may be selected from among the other members of the Governing Board, in which case such Representative shall have as many votes as states represented.” 8 5. Organization; Governing Board

The Governing Board elects its President and Vice President, and, from among its members, a Committee charged with examining, on dates determined by the board, the accounts of expenditures of the Union, in conformity with the financial arrangements established by Regulations ; 4 decides upon what publications shall be issued under the auspices of the Union; 5 determines the manner of appointment of the remainder of the personnel, as well as their duties and all matters affecting their welfare; 6 and appoints the Director General and Assistant Director.

6. Organization; Washington Administration

(a) “A Director General, who shall have charge of the Administration of the Pan-American Union, with power to promote its most ample development, in accordance with the terms of this resolution, with the regulations and with the resolutions of the Governing Board, to which he shall be responsible. He shall attend in an advisory capacity the meetings of the Governing Board, of the committees, and of the International Conferences of American States, for the purpose of giving such information as may be required.” 6

"The Director General shall prepare, with the approval of the Governing Board and in accordance with this resolution, the internal regulations by which the various services of the Pan-American Union shall be governed." 6

"The Director of the Pan-American Union shall present, at the regular session of the Governing Board in November, a detailed budget of the expenses of the next fiscal year. This budget, after being approved by the Governing Board, shall be communicated to the governments members of the Union, with an indication of the quota, fixed in proportion to population, which each government shall pay into the treasury of the Pan-American Union not later than the first of July of the following year.” 8

8 Article V, of resolution adopted at Fifth International Conference of American States, at Santiago, Chili, 1923.

4 Article VII, of resolution adopted at Fifth International Conference of American States, at Santiago, Chili, 1923.

6 Article VIII, of resolution adopted at Fifth International Conference of American States, at Santiago, Chili, 1923,

6 Article VI, of resolution adopted at Fifth International Conference of American States, at Santiago, Chili, 1923.

(b) “An Assistant Director, who shall act as Secretary of the Governing Board.”

(c) Counselor.
(d) Foreign Trade Adviser.
(e) Chief Clerk.
(f) Consultant in Tariff and Juristic Matters.
(g) Chief Statistician.
(h) Chief Accountant.
(i) Librarian.
(i) Managing Editor.
(k) Spanish Translators.
(1) Portuguese Translator.
(m) Chief Mail Clerk.
(n) Secretary to Director General.
(o) Chief, Division of Education.
(p) Chief, Finance Division.

7. Organization; National Agencies

In the capital of each member republic there is an office attached to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, or a committee composed “as far as possible of former delegates to an International Conference of American States, which office or committee is charged with the following duties:

(1) To assist in securing ratification of the treaties and conventions, as well as compliance with the resolutions adopted by the Conferences.

(2) To furnish the Pan-American Union, promptly and in a complete manner, all the information it may need in the preparation of its work.

(3) To present, upon their own initiative, projects which they may consider adapted to the purposes of the Union, and to fulfill such other functions which, in view of these purposes, may be conferred upon them by the respective governments.

6 Article VI, of resolution adopted at Fifth International Conference of American States, at Santiago, Chili, 1923.

7 Article IV, of resolution adopted at Fifth International Conference of American States, at Santiago, Chili, 1923.

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CHAPTER 84

UNITED STATES SECTION OF THE INTER-AMERICAN HIGH

COMMISSION 1. Composition

The Inter-American High Commission is a body composed of as many sections, similar to the United States Section, as there are countries in the Americas, each of such sections being presided over by a member of the national cabinet (usually the Finance Minister) of the country in which it is located.

The United States Section consists of the eight representatives of the United States on the commission.

2. Mission

The commission aims to bring about substantial uniformity in the commercial law and administrative regulations of the American republics and more stable financial relations between Latin America and the United States, and, in general to carry out the recommendations of the First and Second Pan-American Financial Conferences, and co-operate in the formulation and effectuation of the program of the international conferences of American states, in so far as it bears directly on the purposes and work of the commission. 3. History

The First Pan-American Financial Conference was held in Washington, May 24–29, 1915, to study certain aspects of the situation in the Western Hemisphere arising out of the World War. All of the countries of that hemisphere, except Mexico, were represented, many by their respective Ministers of Finance, and all by delegates selected from leaders in juristic, economic, and financial fields.

The commission, at first called the International High Commission, was organized upon the recommendation of the aforesaid Conference, and received legal recognition by the Act of February 7, 1916. The commission assembled in Buenos Aires April 3–12, 1916, to establish a definite program. This was accomplished, and the national sections began work thereon.

The Second Pan-American Conference was held in Washington in January 19–24, 1920, to which the national section reported upon progress and received new instructions.

The Fifth International Conference of American States, in 1923, made use of the studies made by the commission and, in turn, charged the commission with new additional duties.

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4. Activities

(a) The primary duty of the commission is to study the laws and regulations of American countries affecting commercial intercourse, and in proposing means of harmonizing them so as to facilitate inter-American intercourse. It publishes reports on such kindred subjects as bills of exchange, promissory notes, checks, bills of lading, merchandise classification uniformity, protection of trade-marks, etc.

(b) The Central Executive Council keeps in touch with jurists, bankers, and others prominent in economic and legal activities of the various American countries, receiving from, and giving to, them information and suggestions pertinent to the improvement of intercourse. It aims to create good will between the countries, both political and commercial.

(c) The United States Section collects statistics of foreign trade, economic conditions, budgets, public debts, etc., of the other American countries, and otherwise carries out instructions received from the commission through the Central Executive Council.

(d) As examples of the possibilities of service, based upon passed accomplishments, suppose a South American country should find that a United States consu! assigned thereto were under general instructions that called for certain practices which such country deemed inapplicable thereto. Representations made through the respective national sections would bring the situation to the attention of proper authorities, and the objectionable instructions would be modified, or the necessity of their retention would be explained in such a way as to reconcile the objecting country.

On a certain occasion one of the Southern countries was about to send a commission to the United States to seek modification of a certain United States law, which, it was thought, was prejudicial to a certain branch of exportation. The United States Section raised the question with the proper United States authorities, and reported, through the Central Executive Council, sufficient reasons why the laws could not be modified, and the complaining country desisted from sending its commission. United States business men, doing, or contemplating, business in Latin America, may well submit problems to the United States Section, if such problems are of a general nature, in contradistinction to problems of an individual or particular corporation 5. Organization

The Inter-American High Commission is at home, so to speak, in each of the twenty-one countries of the Americas.

At each conference of the commission, it designates an international headquarters or place of residence for its Central Executive Council, composed of the Chairman, Vice Chairman, and Secretary of the National Section of the country so selected as the temporary residence. In 1916 the commission selected the United States as such place of residence.

The United States Section, with offices in the Commerce Building, is constituted as follows:

Honorary Chairman.— The Secretary of the Treasury.
Chairman.—The Secretary of Commerce.
Vice Chairman.-Chairman of the Committee on Commerce of the Senate.
Five Members.
Honorary Members.—Director General, Pan-American Union.
Secretary.

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