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ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL
INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XI
FRANCISCANS to GIBSON

NEW YORK

THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY
1910

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Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910,
by
The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company.

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INITIALs USED IN voluME XI. To IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTORS, WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE
ARTNCLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

A. B. R. ALFRED BARTON RENDLE, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.L.S. f ** Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book on 3 Fruit. * * Classification of Flowering Plants, &c.

A. B. W. K. Sir Alexander BLACKIE WILLIAM KENNEDY, LL.D., F.R.S. Fri
Emeritus Professor of Engineering, University College, London. Consulting ction.
Engineer to Board of Ordnance.

A. Ca. ARTHUR CAYLEY, LL.D., F.R.S. {Gauss. .* * * * See the biographical article, CAYLEy, AFTHUR.

A. E. H. L. AUGUSTU's EDwARD HouGH LovE, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. Sedleian Professor of Natural £ in the University of Oxford. , Hon. Function: Functions of: Fellow, of Queen's College; formerly 'o' of St John's College, Cambridge. Real Variables. Secretary to the London Mathematical Society.

A. E. S. ARTHUR EveRETT SHIPLEY, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. * * *
Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, CambHidge University. (outs". - -
Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.

A. Ge. SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, LL.D. {color. ** *
See the biographical article, GEIKIE, Sir A. * * *

A. Go." Rev. ALExANDER GoRDON, M.A. -
Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. {rank. Sebastian; Gallars.

A. G. B." Hon. ARCHIBALD GRAEME Bell, M.INST.C.E. -
Director of Public Works and £ of Mines, Trinidad. Member of Executive *: British
and Legislative Councils, Inst.C.E. Ullana. **

A. G. D. ARTHUR £ £ £ # £ d of Canad

Dominion Archivist of Canada. ember of the Geographical Board of Canada.

Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint-editor of Documents relating Frontenac et Palluau.
to the Constitutional History of Canada. * * *

A. H. Sm. ARTHUR HAMILTON SMITH, M.A., F.S.A. *

Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. . Author of Catalogue
of Greek Sculpture in the British Museum; &c.

A. M.” Rev. Allen MENzies, D.D.
Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, University of St Andrews. Author

Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. | Gem: II. (in part).

Free Church of Scotlan

of History of Religion; &e. Editor of Review of Theology and Philosophy. (in part). * ,

A.M. C. ACNEs. MARY CLERKE. -
* See the biographical article, CleRKE, AGNEs M. Galileo.

A. N. . , ALFRED Newton, F.R.S. .. Frigate-Bird; Gadwall;

See the biographical article, Newton, Alf RED. Gannet; Gare Fowl. A. N. B. AlFRED NEAve BRAYSHAw, LL.B. *

Author of Bible Notes on the Hebrew Prophets. Friends, Society of. A. N. W. ALFRED NoRTH WHITEHEAD, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S

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Fellow and Lecturer in Mathematics, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of
A Treatise on Universal Algebra; &c.
A. R. C. ALExANDER Ross Clarke, C.B., F.R.S. - J
Colonel, Royal Engineers. Royal Medallist, Royal Society, 1887. In charge of {Geodesy (in part).
the trigonometrical operations of the Ordnance Survey, 1854-1881. l
A. S. M. ALExANDER STUART MURRAY, LL.D.
See the biographical article, MURRAY, Alexander Stuart.

Geometry: VI. (in part) and VII.

{om: IL (in part). Frederick II., Roman

Emperor;
A. W. H.” ARTHUR WILLIAM Holland, y •
Formerly '' of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, French Revolution:

1900. ” Republican Calendar;
- Germany: History (in part
and Bibliography.
*A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.
*

V

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Adolphus Wrliam WARD, Litt.D., LL.D. -
See the biographical article, WARD, A. W. {camel. David (in part).

Hon. BertraND ARTHUR William Russell, M.A., F.R.S.
Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Foundations of 1 Geometry: VI. (in part).
Geometry; Principles of Mathematics, &c.

BERTHA SURTEEs PHILPoTTs, M.A. (Dublin).

Formerly Librarian of Girton College, Cambridge. {ceman: Archaeology.

CHARLEs BéMont, Litt.D. (Oxon.). Fustel De Coulanges;
See the biographical article, Bf Mont, C. Gascony.
Hon. CARRoll Davidson WRIGHT. Friendly Societies:
See the biographical article, WRIGHT, HoN, CARRoLL DAVIDSON, United States.
CHARLEs EveRITT, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. • Ly:
. Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford. {Geometry: History.
Franco-German War
- (in part); -
CHARLEs FRANCIS Atkinson. French Revolutionary
£ Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. - Captain, 1st City of London Wars: Military
(Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. Operations;

Germany: Army;
Gibraltar: History.

CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYEs, A.M., PH.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member { Gelasius II.
of the American Historical Association.

CleMENT KING Shorter.
Editor of The Sphere. Author of Sixty Years of Victorian Literature; Immortal
Memories; The Brontës, Life and Letters; &c.

CHEDOMILLE MIJAtovich.
Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten-
tiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's, 1895-1900 and 1902-1903.

SIR CHARLEs MALcol M KENNEDY, K.C.M.G., C.B. (1831-1908).
Head of Commercial Department, Foreign Öffice, 1872-1893. Lecturer on Inter-
national Law, University College, Bristol. Commissioner in the Levant, 1870–1871,
at Paris, 1872-1886. Plenipotentiary, Treaty of the Hague, 1882. Editor
£emely: Ethnological and Linguistic Essays; Diplomacy and International

Gaskell, Elizabeth.

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