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FIT OF
WINNARCOWANY

Copyrighi, 1893, by Thos. R. VICKROY
Copyright, 1894, by THE WERNER COMPANY

COL, 4TH READ,

PREFACE.

The Fourth Reader offers a wider range of instruction than the preceding number. It includes much more on the principles and practice of good reading. The plan, mode and spirit of this book are in harmony with all that has been indicated in the other volumes of the series. It assumes that reading is a science founded upon principles, which can be known and applied by teacher and pupil.

The spirit of the book is designed to teach the art of reading by judicious application of the principles governing utterance and action. At no time is it assumed that a lesson should be converted into a recitation on science, history, or literature; but rather that these matters should remain, at present, subordinate to the main point, yet brought out incidentally for the purpose of stimulating the mind to look for knowledge in many directions.

Each lesson should be carefully studied by the pupil before it is read in class. A reading lesson should form a picture in the pupil's mind, and, if it be about material things, a tolerably definite outline. Such a picture is possible only when the pupil has grasped all the points separately, and then united them into a whole. Questions, direct and pointed, touching the lesson, will satisfy the teacher whether the lesson is understood.

This prepara tory work must be done before an attempt is made to read the lesson. Many pieces, however, may be read at sight. This is a test in recognizing words, but it can not lead to expressive or elegant reading. Sight-reading is for the purpose of rendering the mind alert and quick to detect the trend of thought. This kind of reading, in later life, presupposes a high degree of culture and general information. Yet, as an exercise in the school-room, it has considerable educational value, while omitting the sympathetic rendering of the piece.

In reading a selection, much depends upon the con

man.

dition of the pupil's mind and how it is brought to act upon what is to be read. The mind should be in a vigorous condition, self-possessed and under good self-control. It must analyze, compare, and classify the ideas to be presented, and determine the character of utterance appropriate to each sentiment to be expressed

How a sentence is to be read, oftentimes taxes all the resources of the pupil's power to reproduce the idea held in the printed words. Thus it is that reading in its most comprehensive sense is called “The Key to Knowledge.

The directions in this book, if followed, will assist the pupil to become a fluent, graceful and intelligent reader. The suggestions are for both pupil and teacher. They are designed to give the pupil better, broader and more intelligent views of things, whether they pertain to nature or to

It is at this period also when the pupil begins in earnest to consult reference books and dictionaries, and to test his own knowledge and efforts by the standard authorities. The habit of investigation and comparison thus formed, is invaluable, as a foundation for patient work should be laid early in life.

In making the selections, extracts have been taken from the best sources of our literature, and the aim has been to combine elegance with simplicity, and thus give the pupil something good to think about in after life.

The directions and explanations by Prof. JAMES H. BROWNLEE will be found exceedingly helpful to both pupil and teacher, since they give a thorough and accurate insight into the nature, character and scope of what good reading is and the principles upon which it is founded.

The publishers of the Columbian Readers take especial pleasure in calling the attention of the educational public to the revised edition of these Readers, believing that they will meet with renewed favor when it is known that the work of this revision has been under the editorial charge and care of J. M. GREENWOOD, Supt. Kansas City Schools, than whom no better person could have undertaken the task.

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