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THE

ENCYCLOPZEDIA BRITANNICA

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL
INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XXVI
SUBMARINE MINES to TOM-TOM

NEW YORK

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY
I911

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911, by the Encyclopaedia Britannica Company.

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CONTRIBUTORS, WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE
ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

A. ADAMs Reilly.
Joint-author of Life and Letters of J. D. Forbes. {*. François.

AUGUSTE BoupINHoN, D.D., D.C.L.
Professor of Canon Law at the Catholic University of Paris. Honorary Canon of 3 Syllabus.
Paris. Editor of the Canoniste contemporain.

Alfred BRADLEY Gouch, M.A., PH.D.
Sometime Casberd Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. English Lector in the Swabian League.
University of Kiel, 1896-1905.

ARTHUR CAYLEY, LL.D., F.R.S. {surface (in part).
See the biographical article: CAYLEY, ARTHUR.

Alfred CHAPMAN. M.INst.C.E. Sugar: Sugar Manufacture (in
Designer and Čonstructor of Sugar-Machinery. part).

ALBERT CURTIs CLARK, M.A.

Fellow and Tutor of Queen's College, Oxford, and Uffiversity Reader in Latin. (Theocritus.
Editor of Cicero's Speeches (Clarendon Press).
A": £ £ £ M.A., #P. £ tli
rott - tment, Briti useum, 1875-1895. allist,
eeper of the Zoological Lepartmen it is 75 '#'. Salientia, Swordfish.

Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes
£ Fishes in the British Museum; &c.

REv. ARTHUR CUSHMAN McGIFFERT, M.A., PH.D., D.D.
Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of
### Christianity in Apostolic Age; &c. Editor of the Historia Ecclesia
Ol DuScotus.

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Theodoret (in part).

Fellow and Tutor of Magdalen College, Oxford, and Public Orator in the University.

Author of Socrates and Athenian Society; &c. Editor of editions of Tacitus.
ALBERT FREDERICK PollARD, M.A., F.R.HIST.S.

Professor of English History in the University of London: Fellow of All Souls

Tacitus (in part).

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College, Oxford. Assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893–

1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; # £ 1898. £ £f] Tetzel.
England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII., Life of Thomas Cranmer, &c.

MAJoR ARTHUR GEORGE FREDERICK GRIFFITHS (d. 1908).
H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878–1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate: {Ticket-of-Leave.

Secrets of the Prison House; &c.

Tertullian (in part),
Theodore of Mopsuestia;
Theodoret (in part).

ADoLF HARNAck, D.PH.
See the biographical article: HARNAck, Adolf.

ARTHUR Hervey.

Formerly Musical Critic to the Morning Post and to Vanity Fair. Author of Masters harles.
of French Music; French Music in the Nineteenth Century. Thomas, C

SIR. A. HourUM-ScHINDLER, C.I.E. Tabriz;
General in the Persian Army. Autnor of Eastern Persian Irak. Teheran.

Rev. ARCHIBALD HENRY SAYCE, D.D., LL.D., LITT.D. {s".
See the biographical article:SAYcE, ARCHIBAL.D H.

REy. ALExANDER JAMEs GRIEve, M.A., B.D.
Professor of §: Testament and Church. History, Yorkshire United Independent Swedenborg Emanuel;
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of Tithes (Religion).
Mysore Educational Service.

ANDREw LANG, LL.D. {*.
See the biographical article: LANG, Andrew.

"A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.
w

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AUGUST MULLER, PH.D. (£
Formerly Professor of Semitic guages in the University of Halle. Author of 3 Sunnites (in part).
Der Islam im Morgen- und Abendland. itor of Orientalische Bibliographie.
Art: £ £ £: F.R.G.S., F.R.MET.S.
ice-Admiral R.N. Admiralt epresentative on Port of London Authority. - -
Acting Conservator of River M'. Hydrographer of the Royal Navy, 1904– Surveying: Nautical.
1909. Author of Hydrographical Surveying; &c.
Sugar-bird; Sun-bird;
Sun-bittern; Swallow;

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Member of the Council of £ Society. Author of The London Water {*.
e

Supply; Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperance and Legislation.

ARCHIBAld SHARP. {".
Consulting Engineer and Chartered Patent Agent.

ALAN SUMMERLY COLE, C.B. Tapestry;
Formerly Assistant Secretary, Board of Education, South Kensington. Author of pestry; •
ornament in European Silks: catalogue of Tapestry, Embroidery, £ce and Egyptian Textile-Printing: Art and
Textiles in the Victoria and Albert Museum; &c. Archaeology.

ANDREw SETH PRINGLE-PATTIson, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.
Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford -
Lecturer in the University of £ 1911. Fellow of the British Academy. Theosophy (in part).
Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals, &c.

"'ich & Hall, Ltd., Publishers. Formerly 1 d
anaging Directoro apman all, Ltd., Publishers. Formerly literary adviser
to Kegan Paul & Co., Author of Alfred Lord Tennyson; #: of the Wheel; Symonds, John Addington.
# Browning in “Westminster Biographies.” Editor of Johnson's Lives of the
ocis.

ARTHUR WillIAM Holland. { Thegn.
Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900.

Alexander Wood RENToN, M.A., LL.B.
# of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws | Thurlow, Lord.
of England.

CHARLEs BEMONT, D.Litt. Thierry;
See the biographical article: Bf Mont, C. Thou, Jacques.

ca': '. #. M.R. hor of A H f Epide B J
ing's College, Cambridge. Author o istory o idemics in Britain; Jenner : History.
and Vaccination; Plague : India; &c. rita Surgery 1story

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly, Fellow of Trinity College,
Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British £ Africa
Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; Consul-General for German
East Africa, 1900-1904.

Tatars (in part).

Supply and Transport
(Military);
Thirty Years' War.

CHARLEs FRANCIS AtkINSoN.
Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbor.

CHARLEs FRANCIS BASTABLE, M.A., LL.D.
# Professor of Laws and Professor of Political Economy in the University of
# 's Author of Public Finance; Commerce of Nations; Theory of International

r CCC.

CARLtoN HUNTLEY HAyes, A.M., PH.D., .
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member of
the American Historical Association.

CLARENCE HILL KElsey, A.M., LL.B.
Vice-President and General Manager of the Bond and # Guarantee Company,
New York City. Director of the Corn Exchange Bank, &c.

CHARLes THEodoRE HAGBERG WRIGHT. LL.D.
Librarian and Secretary of the London Library. {Tolstoy. Leo.

CHARLEs JASPER BLUNT. -
Major, Royal Artillery. Ordnance Officer. Served through Chitral Campaign. Tirah Campaign.

CHARLEs LETHBRIDGE KINGsFoRD, M.A., F.R.HIST.S., F.S.A.
Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V, Editor { Suffolk, William de la Pole,
of Chronicles of London, and Stow's Survey of London, Duke of.

Token Money.

Sully.

Title Guarantee Companies,

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